what are the gram negative bacilli zoonotic bacteria?
- Yersinia pestis
how does pasteurella multocida look like?
how does pasteurella multocida spread?
Transmission: bites of animals, cat bites *
pasteurella multocida will cause what?
Cellulitis with lymphadenitis
treatment for pasteurella multocida?
where in the US is yersinia pestis can be seen?
what is the biology of yersinia pestis?
- Oxidase negative,
- lactose non-fermenting
- Bipolar staining,
- “safety-pin” *
- Facultative intracellular pathogen
how is yersinia pestis acquired?
through animals only
in urban areas, what animal can carry yersinia pestis?
IN US - desert southwest, what animal can carry yersinia pestis?
- Wild rodents *
- ground squirrels,
- other wild rodents *
how does yersinia pestis transmit to a human?
- Bites of infected FLEAS *(animal-to-animal, Animal-to-human)
- Respiratory droplets (person-to-person spread *)
- Direct handling * of tissue/body fluids of infected animals
what is the pathogenesis of yersinia pestis?
- phagocytosed by PMNs, monocytes
- resist killing and multiply
- Death of infected phagocytes and release of organisms; multiply extracellularly in lymph node
- Regional lymph nodes enlarged (“BUBOES” Bubonic plague*)
- spread to bloodstream
- dissemination to lungs (Pneumonic plague *), meninges (Plague meningitis), septicemia and septick shock (Plague septicemia)
what symptoms does yersinia pestis cause?
- One/more enlarged lymph nodes – “Buboes"
- Femoral/inguinal/axillary/cerivcal lymph nodes
how do you prevent dissemination of yersinia pestis?
Early treatment prevents dissemination and development of pneumonic plague and other system infections *
how does pulmonary dissemination spread?
transmits to other human through respiratory droplets
if pulmonary plague is left untreated what happens?
what symptoms is seen in Pneumonic plague *?
cough with bloody or watery mucous
how infectious is Pneumonic plague *?
Highly infectious *
Rapid spread of disease occurs where?
how do you know you have Septicemic plague?
you will see:
- Septic shock
- Bleeding under skin, other tissues (ecchymoses) - blackening of fingers, toes, nose*
how do you confirm a diagnosis of plague?
- Giemsa stain – you see bipolar rods *
- Direct Fluorescent antibody (DFA) test *
how do you treat yersinia pestis?
Tularemia (Francisella tularensis)
what is Francisella tularensis biology?
Facultative intracellular pathogen
what animals carry francisella tularensis?
rabbits, deer, rodents *
how can you acquire francisella tularensis?
- Bite of arthropod vector
- Traumatic implantation – eg. While skinning rabbits *
- Inhalation of aerosols – skinning animals *
who is most prone to acquiring francisella tularensis?
Veterinarians, hunters, trappers *
what dieseases will francisella tularensis cause?
- Ulceroglandular disease: local ulcer + swollen regional LN *
- Glandular: swollen lymph nodes
- Oculoglandular: inflammation of eyes + swollen LN front of ear
- Oropharyngeal: sore throat, mouth ulcers, swollen neck glands
- Pneumonic: Cough, chest pain, difficulty breathing
what is the biology of brucella?
- Gram negative coccobacilli
- Facultative intracellular organism
what animals serve as a Reservoir?
Domestic livestock *: cattle, goats, pigs
how does brucella spread?
- direct contact with infected animals *
- Unpasteurized dairy products (milk, cheese) *
what occupations are prone to infection with brucella?
- slaughterhouse workers
- ranchers, dairy farmers *
what are the initial symptoms of brucella?
Fever, Headache, pain in muscles
what symptoms can persist after an infection with brucella?
Recurrent fevers (undulating pattern – rise & fall) *
how to you confirm a diagnosis with brucella?
Blood and bone marrow cultures
how do you treat brucella?
Rifampicin + doxycycline for minimum of 6 weeks
what is the biology of bartonella?
Small gram negative rods
Facultative intracellular organisms
what are two types of bartonella?
- Bartonella henslae
- Bartonella quintana
how do acquire bartonella henselae?
cat scratch fever will present with what?
Small abcesses at site fever and localized lymphadenopathy
how do you treat cat scratch fever?
what is another name for Bartonella quintana?
where do we find a bartonella quintana reservoir?
how is bartonella quintana spread?
human body louse*
bartonella quintana is associated with what?
poor living conditions (poor sanitation, crowded living conditions)
where is bartonella quintana Re-emergining?
among homeless populations *
what symptoms are seen in infection with bartonella quintana?
Mild, relapsing fever with maculopapular rash
how do you treat bartonella quintana?
Treat with broad spectrum antibiotics