what are the gram negative bacilli zoonotic bacteria?
- Yersinia pestis
how does pasteurella multocida look like?
how does pasteurella multocida spread?
Transmission: bites of animals, cat bites *
pasteurella multocida will cause what?
Cellulitis with lymphadenitis
treatment for pasteurella multocida?
where in the US is yersinia pestis can be seen?
what is the biology of yersinia pestis?
- Oxidase negative,
- lactose non-fermenting
- Bipolar staining,
- “safety-pin” *
- Facultative intracellular pathogen
how is yersinia pestis acquired?
through animals only
in urban areas, what animal can carry yersinia pestis?
IN US - desert southwest, what animal can carry yersinia pestis?
- Wild rodents *
- ground squirrels,
- other wild rodents *
how does yersinia pestis transmit to a human?
- Bites of infected FLEAS *(animal-to-animal, Animal-to-human)
- Respiratory droplets (person-to-person spread *)
- Direct handling * of tissue/body fluids of infected animals
what is the pathogenesis of yersinia pestis?
- phagocytosed by PMNs, monocytes
- resist killing and multiply
- Death of infected phagocytes and release of organisms; multiply extracellularly in lymph node
- Regional lymph nodes enlarged (“BUBOES” Bubonic plague*)
- spread to bloodstream
- dissemination to lungs (Pneumonic plague *), meninges (Plague meningitis), septicemia and septick shock (Plague septicemia)
what symptoms does yersinia pestis cause?
- One/more enlarged lymph nodes – “Buboes"
- Femoral/inguinal/axillary/cerivcal lymph nodes
how do you prevent dissemination of yersinia pestis?
Early treatment prevents dissemination and development of pneumonic plague and other system infections *
how does pulmonary dissemination spread?
transmits to other human through respiratory droplets
if pulmonary plague is left untreated what happens?
what symptoms is seen in Pneumonic plague *?
cough with bloody or watery mucous
how infectious is Pneumonic plague *?
Highly infectious *
Rapid spread of disease occurs where?
how do you know you have Septicemic plague?
you will see:
- Septic shock
- Bleeding under skin, other tissues (ecchymoses) - blackening of fingers, toes, nose*
how do you confirm a diagnosis of plague?
- Giemsa stain – you see bipolar rods *
- Direct Fluorescent antibody (DFA) test *
how do you treat yersinia pestis?
Tularemia (Francisella tularensis)
what is Francisella tularensis biology?
Facultative intracellular pathogen
what animals carry francisella tularensis?
rabbits, deer, rodents *
how can you acquire francisella tularensis?
- Bite of arthropod vector
- Traumatic implantation – eg. While skinning rabbits *
- Inhalation of aerosols – skinning animals *
who is most prone to acquiring francisella tularensis?
Veterinarians, hunters, trappers *
what dieseases will francisella tularensis cause?