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Microbiology Block 3 > Zoonotic GNB > Flashcards

Flashcards in Zoonotic GNB Deck (52):
1

what are the gram negative bacilli zoonotic bacteria?

  1. Pasteurella 
  2. Yersinia pestis
  3. Francisella
  4. Brucella
  5. Bartonella

2

Pasteurella multocida

3

how does pasteurella multocida look like?

coccobacilli GNB

4

how does pasteurella multocida spread?

Transmission: bites of animals, cat bites *

 

5

pasteurella multocida will cause what?

Cellulitis with lymphadenitis

Wound infections

 

6

treatment for pasteurella multocida?

Amoxicillin-clavulanate *

 

7

Yersinia pestis

8

where in the US is yersinia pestis can be seen?

desert southwest

9

what is the biology of yersinia pestis?

  • Oxidase negative, 
  • lactose non-fermenting
  • Bipolar staining, 
  • “safety-pin” *
  • Facultative intracellular pathogen

 

10

how is yersinia pestis acquired?

through animals only

11

in urban areas, what animal can carry yersinia pestis?

RATS *

12

IN US - desert southwest, what animal can carry yersinia pestis?

  • Wild rodents *
  • Prairie-dogs,
  • ground squirrels,
  • chipmunks,
  • other wild rodents *

13

how does yersinia pestis transmit to a human?

  • Bites of infected FLEAS *(animal-to-animal, Animal-to-human)
  • Respiratory droplets  (person-to-person spread *)
  • Direct handling * of tissue/body fluids of infected animals

14

what is the pathogenesis of yersinia pestis?

  • phagocytosed by PMNs, monocytes
  • resist killing and multiply
  • Death of infected phagocytes and release of organisms; multiply extracellularly in lymph node 
  • Regional lymph nodes  enlarged (“BUBOES” Bubonic plague*)
  • spread to bloodstream
  • dissemination to lungs (Pneumonic plague *), meninges (Plague meningitis), septicemia and septick shock (Plague septicemia)

 

15

what symptoms does yersinia pestis cause?

  • One/more enlarged lymph nodes – “Buboes"
  • Femoral/inguinal/axillary/cerivcal lymph nodes

16

how do you prevent dissemination of yersinia pestis?

Early treatment prevents dissemination and development of pneumonic plague and other system infections *

 

17

how does pulmonary dissemination spread?

transmits to other human through respiratory droplets

18

if pulmonary plague is left untreated what happens?

bubonic/septicaemic plague

19

what symptoms is seen in Pneumonic plague *?

 

cough with bloody or watery mucous

 

20

how infectious is Pneumonic plague *?

 

Highly infectious *

 

21

Rapid spread of disease occurs where?

 in communities 

22

how do you know you have Septicemic plague?

you will see: 

- Septic shock

- Bleeding under skin, other tissues (ecchymoses)         - blackening of fingers, toes, nose*

 

23

how do you confirm a diagnosis of plague?

  • Giemsa stain – you see bipolar rods *
  • Direct Fluorescent antibody (DFA) test *

24

how do you treat yersinia pestis?

Aminoglycosides

25

Tularemia (Francisella tularensis)

26

what is Francisella tularensis biology?

Facultative intracellular pathogen

27

what animals carry francisella tularensis?

rabbits, deer, rodents *

 

28

how can you acquire francisella tularensis?

  • Bite of arthropod vector
  • Traumatic implantation – eg. While skinning rabbits *
  • Inhalation of aerosols – skinning animals *

29

who is most prone to acquiring francisella tularensis?

Veterinarians, hunters, trappers *

 

30

what dieseases will francisella tularensis cause?

  • Ulceroglandular disease:  local ulcer + swollen regional LN *
  • Glandular: swollen lymph nodes
  • Oculoglandular: inflammation of eyes + swollen LN front of ear
  • Oropharyngeal: sore throat, mouth ulcers, swollen neck glands
  • Pneumonic: Cough, chest pain, difficulty breathing

31

Brucellosis

32

what is the biology of brucella?

  • Gram negative coccobacilli
  • Facultative intracellular organism 

 

33

what animals serve as a Reservoir?

 

Domestic livestock *: cattle, goats, pigs

34

how does brucella spread?

  1. direct contact with infected animals *
  2. Unpasteurized dairy products (milk, cheese) *

35

what occupations are prone to infection with brucella?

  • veterinarians
  • slaughterhouse workers
  • ranchers, dairy farmers *

36

what are the initial symptoms of brucella?

Fever, Headache, pain in muscles

37

what symptoms can persist after an infection with brucella?

Recurrent fevers (undulating pattern – rise & fall) *

Chronic fatigue

38

how to you confirm a diagnosis with brucella?

Blood and bone marrow cultures 

 

39

how do you treat brucella?

Rifampicin + doxycycline for minimum of 6 weeks

40

bartonella

41

what is the biology of bartonella?

Small gram negative rods

Facultative intracellular organisms

42

what are two types of bartonella?

  1. Bartonella henslae 
  2. Bartonella quintana 

43

how do acquire bartonella henselae?

Cat bite/scratch

 

44

cat scratch fever will present with what?

Small abcesses at site fever and localized lymphadenopathy

45

how do you treat cat scratch fever?

 Azithromycin, doxycycline

46

what is another name for Bartonella quintana?

Trench fever

47

where do we find a bartonella quintana reservoir?

infected human

48

how is bartonella quintana spread?

human body louse*

49

bartonella quintana is associated with what?

poor living conditions (poor sanitation, crowded living conditions)

50

where is bartonella quintana Re-emergining?

among homeless populations *

51

what symptoms are seen in infection with bartonella quintana?

Mild, relapsing fever with maculopapular rash

 

52

how do you treat bartonella quintana?

Treat with broad spectrum antibiotics