what is the biology of vibrio?
- Gram negative “comma” bacilli
- Oxidase +
how does vibrio spread?
Ingestion of contaminated seafood or water
(Associated with natural disasters)
what is the most common vibrio infection globally?
what is vibrio cholerae pathogenesis?
1) Vibrio attaches to microvilli in small intestine with TCP (Toxin-Coregulated Pilus) and releases toxin.
2) Cholera Toxin B subunit binds to GM ganglioside receptor.
3) Cholera Toxin A subunit ADP-ribosylates Gαs of GCPR, thus increasing adenylate cyclase activity.
4) Increased cAMP causes electrolyte efflux to lumen of gut.
5) Altered osmotic environment causes massive loss of water.
what will vibrio cholerae cause?
Excessive “rice-water” secretory diarrhea
what complications can occur with vibrio cholerae?
- Hypokalemia and hypovolemic shock
what is vibrio parahaemolyticus the most common cause of?
MC cause of seafood gastroenteritis in USA esp. shellfish
Vibrio parahaemolyticus will lead to what?
Self-limiting diarrheal disease
what will Vibrio vulnificus leado to?
- Self-limiting diarrheal disease
- Cellulitis in wounds after exposure to salt water
what will vibrio vulnificus lead to in immunocompromised individuals?
Septicemia and necrotizing fasciitis, especially in chronic liver disease
what is the treatment for vibrio? (for healthy and for immunocompromised)
Rehydration!!!! Replacement of water and electrolytes (NaCl plus sugar). for healthy individuals.
Doxycycline if patient is immune-compromised and at risk of sepsis