Brain and Cranial Nerves 17 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Brain and Cranial Nerves 17 Deck (70)
1

What comprises the Brain stem?

Medulla oblongata, pons and midbrain

2

What comprises the diencephalon

Thalamus, hypothatlmus, epithalamus

3

What separates the 2 cerebral hemispheres of the brain?

Falx cerebri

4

What separates the two cerebellar hemispheres of the brain?

Falx cerebelli

5

_________ separates the cerebrum from the cerebellum

Tentorium cerebelli

6

How much blood does the brain receive

20%

7

Which arteries carry blood to the brain

Carotid and vertebral arteries

8

Which veins returns blood from the brain

Internal jugular

9

_____________ protects the brain from harmful substances

Blood brain barrier

10

Cerebrospinal fluid

Clear fluid
Circulates the ventricles & spinal cord & subarachnoid space
Absorbs shock
Transports nutrients and waste from blood and nervous tissue

11

Brain stem

continuation of the spinal cord; consists of the medulla oblongata, pons and midbrain.

12

Diencephalon - what is it comprised of

gives rise to thalamus, hypothalamus and epithalamus.

13

List the cranial meninges

dura mater, arachnoid mater and pia mater.

14

Three extensions of the dura mater what are they

Falx cerebri,Falx cerebelli, Tentorium cerebelli

15

Falx cerebri

separate the two cerebral hemispheres.

16

Falx cerebelli

separate the two cerebellar hemispheres.

17

Tentorium cerebelli

separate the cerebrum from the cerebellum

18

How much blood supply does the brain recieve

20%

19

How much body mass is the brain

2% of the body

20

in the menegies, where does the CSF flow

subarachnoid space

21

List how the CSF moves through the brain

CSF from the lateral ventricles  interventricular foramina  third ventricle  cerebral aqueduct  fourth ventricle  subarachnoid space or central canal.

22

Where is the CSP reabsorbed into the blood

arachnoid villi.

23

Cranial Nerve 1

Olfactory nerve 1

24

Cranial nerve 2

Optic nerve 2

25

Cranial nerve 3

Oculomotor nerve 3

26

cranial nerve 4

trochlear nerve 4

27

cranial nerve 5

Trigeminal nerve 5

28

Cranial nerve 6

Abducens nerve 6

29

Cranial nerve 7

facial nerve 7

30

cranial nerve 8

vestivulocochlear nerve 8

31

cranial nerve 9

Glossopharyngeal nerve 9

32

Cranial nerve 10

Vagus nerve 10

33

Cranial nerve 11

Accessory nerve 11

34

cranial nerve 12

hypoglossal nerve 12

35

How is CSF produced

plasma is drawn from the chorocoid plexues through ependymal cells into ventricles to produce CSF
and produced in the ventricles, subarachnoid space, central canal

36

What are choroid plexuses

networks of capillaries in the walls of the ventricles

37

What does the CSF pass through from the 3rd ventricle to the 4th ventricle

aqueduct

38

pyramids

Bulges on the anterior aspect of the medulla. Formed by the large corticospinal tracts that pass from the cerebrum to the spinal cord.
Where the crossover happens on the ascending tracts

39

where does decussation happen

medulla oblongata

40

Medulla Oblongata, what vital functions does this portion of the brain control

cardiovascular and respriatory

41

loss of neurons in which area is associated with Parkinsons disease

Midbrain

42

functions of the cerebellum

Functions - coordinate movements, regulate posture and balance

43

Thalamus

Major relay station for most sensory impulses.

44

hypothalamus

Control of the ANS.
Production of hormones
Regulation of emotional and behavioral patterns, eating and drinking, body temperature, and circadian rhythms

45

epithalamus

Small region superior to the thalamus.
Consists of pineal gland which secretes a hormone called melatonin
Melatonin induces sleep

46

List the lobes of the cerebrum

frontal lobe, parietal lobe, temporal lobe and occipital lobe.

47

Central sulcus

separates the frontal and parietal lobes.

48

Precentral gyrus

primary motor area

49

Postcentral gyrus

primary somatosensory area

50

purpose of the basal ganglia

Help initiate and terminate movements, suppress unwanted movements and regulate muscle tone

51

limbic system

Includes cingulate gyrus, hippocampus, dentate gyrus, amygdala, mammillary bodies, thalamus, and the olfactory bulb.
“emotional brain” as it governs emotional aspects of behavior.
Also involved in olfaction and memory.

52

What does the Olfactory nerve 1 percieve

Sense of smell.

53

Optic nerve (2)

nerve of vision

54

Oculomotor Nerve (3)

Supply extrinsic eye muscles to control movements of the eyeball and upper eyelid.

55

Trochlear Nerve (4)

Controls movement of the eyeball.

56

Trigeminal nerve (5)

Largest cranial nerve.
Mixed nerve.
Three branches: opthalmic, maxillary and mandibular. Deal with sensation of touch, pain and temperature.
Motor axons supply muscles of mastication.

57

Abducens Nerve (6)

eyeball (lateral rotation).

58

Facial (VII) Nerve

taste buds of the anterior two-thirds of the tongue.
Motor portion arises from the pons and deal with facial expression

59

Vestibulocochlear (VIII) Nerve

equilibrium.
hearing.

60

Glossopharyngeal (IX) Nerve

taste buds of the posterior one-third of the tongue.
deal with the release of saliva.

61

Vagus (X) Nerve

into abdomen
proprioception, and stretching.
Motor neurons arise from the medulla and supply muscles of the pharynx, larynx, and soft palate that are involved in swallowing and vocalization.

62

Accessory (XI) Nerve

Supplies sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles to coordinate head movements.

63

Hypoglossal (XII) Nerve

speech and swallowing.

64

Reticular activation system

contains sensory axons and maintains conciousness

65

Wernicke’s area

left temporal and parietal lobes.

66

Are the cranial nerves part of the CNS

no they are part of the peripheral nervous system

67

anacronym for remembering cranal nerves

OOO To Tough And Feel Very Green Vegetables AH

68

What are the major parts of the brain

brain stem, diencephalon, cerebellum and cerebrum

69

What does the blood brain barrier do

Limits the passage of certain material from the blood and brain

70

how is the brain protected

cranial bones, meniges and cerebrospinal fluid