Flashcards in Brain and Cranial Nerves 17 Deck (70)
What comprises the Brain stem?
Medulla oblongata, pons and midbrain
What comprises the diencephalon
Thalamus, hypothatlmus, epithalamus
What separates the 2 cerebral hemispheres of the brain?
What separates the two cerebellar hemispheres of the brain?
_________ separates the cerebrum from the cerebellum
How much blood does the brain receive
Which arteries carry blood to the brain
Carotid and vertebral arteries
Which veins returns blood from the brain
_____________ protects the brain from harmful substances
Blood brain barrier
Circulates the ventricles & spinal cord & subarachnoid space
Transports nutrients and waste from blood and nervous tissue
continuation of the spinal cord; consists of the medulla oblongata, pons and midbrain.
Diencephalon - what is it comprised of
gives rise to thalamus, hypothalamus and epithalamus.
List the cranial meninges
dura mater, arachnoid mater and pia mater.
Three extensions of the dura mater what are they
Falx cerebri,Falx cerebelli, Tentorium cerebelli
separate the two cerebral hemispheres.
separate the two cerebellar hemispheres.
separate the cerebrum from the cerebellum
How much blood supply does the brain recieve
How much body mass is the brain
2% of the body
in the menegies, where does the CSF flow
List how the CSF moves through the brain
CSF from the lateral ventricles interventricular foramina third ventricle cerebral aqueduct fourth ventricle subarachnoid space or central canal.
Where is the CSP reabsorbed into the blood
Cranial Nerve 1
Olfactory nerve 1
Cranial nerve 2
Optic nerve 2
Cranial nerve 3
Oculomotor nerve 3
cranial nerve 4
trochlear nerve 4
cranial nerve 5
Trigeminal nerve 5
Cranial nerve 6
Abducens nerve 6
Cranial nerve 7
facial nerve 7
cranial nerve 8
vestivulocochlear nerve 8
cranial nerve 9
Glossopharyngeal nerve 9
Cranial nerve 10
Vagus nerve 10
Cranial nerve 11
Accessory nerve 11
cranial nerve 12
hypoglossal nerve 12
How is CSF produced
plasma is drawn from the chorocoid plexues through ependymal cells into ventricles to produce CSF
and produced in the ventricles, subarachnoid space, central canal
What are choroid plexuses
networks of capillaries in the walls of the ventricles
What does the CSF pass through from the 3rd ventricle to the 4th ventricle
Bulges on the anterior aspect of the medulla. Formed by the large corticospinal tracts that pass from the cerebrum to the spinal cord.
Where the crossover happens on the ascending tracts
where does decussation happen
Medulla Oblongata, what vital functions does this portion of the brain control
cardiovascular and respriatory
loss of neurons in which area is associated with Parkinsons disease
functions of the cerebellum
Functions - coordinate movements, regulate posture and balance
Major relay station for most sensory impulses.
Control of the ANS.
Production of hormones
Regulation of emotional and behavioral patterns, eating and drinking, body temperature, and circadian rhythms
Small region superior to the thalamus.
Consists of pineal gland which secretes a hormone called melatonin
Melatonin induces sleep
List the lobes of the cerebrum
frontal lobe, parietal lobe, temporal lobe and occipital lobe.
separates the frontal and parietal lobes.
primary motor area
primary somatosensory area
purpose of the basal ganglia
Help initiate and terminate movements, suppress unwanted movements and regulate muscle tone
Includes cingulate gyrus, hippocampus, dentate gyrus, amygdala, mammillary bodies, thalamus, and the olfactory bulb.
“emotional brain” as it governs emotional aspects of behavior.
Also involved in olfaction and memory.
What does the Olfactory nerve 1 percieve
Sense of smell.
Optic nerve (2)
nerve of vision
Oculomotor Nerve (3)
Supply extrinsic eye muscles to control movements of the eyeball and upper eyelid.
Trochlear Nerve (4)
Controls movement of the eyeball.
Trigeminal nerve (5)
Largest cranial nerve.
Three branches: opthalmic, maxillary and mandibular. Deal with sensation of touch, pain and temperature.
Motor axons supply muscles of mastication.
Abducens Nerve (6)
eyeball (lateral rotation).
Facial (VII) Nerve
taste buds of the anterior two-thirds of the tongue.
Motor portion arises from the pons and deal with facial expression
Vestibulocochlear (VIII) Nerve
Glossopharyngeal (IX) Nerve
taste buds of the posterior one-third of the tongue.
deal with the release of saliva.
Vagus (X) Nerve
proprioception, and stretching.
Motor neurons arise from the medulla and supply muscles of the pharynx, larynx, and soft palate that are involved in swallowing and vocalization.
Accessory (XI) Nerve
Supplies sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles to coordinate head movements.
Hypoglossal (XII) Nerve
speech and swallowing.
Reticular activation system
contains sensory axons and maintains conciousness
left temporal and parietal lobes.
Are the cranial nerves part of the CNS
no they are part of the peripheral nervous system
anacronym for remembering cranal nerves
OOO To Tough And Feel Very Green Vegetables AH
What are the major parts of the brain
brain stem, diencephalon, cerebellum and cerebrum
What does the blood brain barrier do
Limits the passage of certain material from the blood and brain