Nutrition and Metabolism -27 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Nutrition and Metabolism -27 Deck (19)
1

list the 6 types of nutrients

  • Carbohydrates,
  • lipids,
  • protein,
  • water,
  • minerals,
  • vitamins

2

How many calories per gram for proteins or carbohydrates

4

3

How many calories per gram for proteins for lipids

9

4

What are some of the essential lipid soluble vitamins

A, D, E & K

5

Essential minerals needed in our diet

Ca, P, K, Cl, Fl, Mg, Fe, Cr, I, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Se

6

Anabolism

synthesis of more complex chemicals

7

Catabolism

breakdown with energy release

8

During glycolysis, is oxygen required?

no, not in the cytoplasm

9

Overall, in the catabolism, how many ATP are made from one glucose molecule

34-36

10

Within the mitochondria, is oxygen required to catabolize glucose?

yes

11

Lipolysis

the catabolism of triglycerides to make energy

12

Lipogenesis

the anabolism of fats

13

list the process of protein catabolism

  • deamination in liver to remove NH2 -> NH3
  • Liver converts toxic NH3 -> urea -> urine
  • rest of amino acid -> krebs cycle -> ATP

14

Essential amino acids

can NOT be made in the body and must come from the diet

15

1 calorie

the energy needed to raise 1 g of water 1 degree

16

Basal metabolic rate

heat produced from catabolism when resting and fasting

17

What can affect the metabolic rate

  • Exercise can increase rate 15-20 times
  • Hormones - thyroid
  • Nervous system - ANS
  • Body temp Ingestion of food - increase 10-20%
  • Age Gender, pregnancy, climate, sleep, malnutrition

18

What are the 4 different forms of heat loss in the body

  • Radiation
  • Conduction
  • Convection
  • Evaporation

19

Many coenzymes are derived from vitamins.

Examples include coenzyme _______, derived from ________, and the coenzyme ______, derived from ________

NAD+, niacin

FAD, vitamin B2, riboflavin