Chapter 4 - Tissues Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4 - Tissues Deck (54)
1

Tissues of the body develop from three primary germ layers, what are they?

nEndoderm, Mesoderm, and Ectoderm

2

All connective tissue and most muscle tissues derive from______________

mesoderm

3

Nervous tissue develops from_____________

ectoderm

4

Contact points between the plasma membranes of tissue cells.  What are the 5 most common types:

  1. Tight junctions
  2. Adherens junctions
  3. Desmosomes
  4. Hemidesmosomes
  5. Gap junctions

5

Tight junctions

Web-like strands of transmembrane proteins

  • Fuse cells together
  • Seal off passageways between adjacent cells

6

Adherens Junctions

Dense layer of proteins called plaque

  • Resist separation of cells during contractile activities
  • Located inside of the plasma membrane attached to both membrane proteins and microfilaments of the cytoskeleton
  • Transmembrane glycoproteins called cadherins insert into the plaque and join cells
  • In epithelial cells, adhesion belts encircle the cell

7

Desmosomes

Contain plaque and cadherins that extends into the intercellular space to attach adjacent cells together

8

Hemidesmosomes

Resemble half of a desmosome

  • Do not link adjacent cells but anchor cells to the basement membrane
  • Contain transmembrane glycoprotein integrin
  • Integrins attach to intermediate filaments and the protein laminin present in the basement membrane

9

Gap Junctions

Connect neighboring cells via tiny fluid-filled tunnels called connexons

10

_____________ consists of cells arranged in continuous sheets, in either single or multiple layers

Epithelial tissue

 

11

What are the 3 major functions of epithelial tissue?

  1. Selective barrier
  2. secretory suface
  3. protective surface

12

Epithelial Cells

Where would one find the apical surface?

faces the body surface, body cavity, lumen, or duct

13

Epithelial cells

there are 3 surfaces of epithelial cells, list them

  1. Apical surface
  2. lateral surface
  3. basal surface

14

Epithelial Cells

Where would one find the lateral surface?

faces adjacent cells

15

Epithelial Cells

Where would one find the basal surface?

opposite of the apical layer and adheres to extracellular materials

16

Basement membrane

Thin double extracellular layer that serves as the point of attachment and support for overlying epithelial tissue

17

Simple epithelium

Single layer of cells that function in diffusion, osmosis, filtration, secretion, or absorption

18

Pseudostratified epithelium

  • Appears to have multiple layers because cell nuclei at different levels
  • All cells do not reach the apical surface
  • found in: upper respratory & ducts of many glands

19

Stratified epithelium

  • Two or more layers of cells that protect underlying tissues in areas of wear and tear

20

squamous cells

  • Thin cells, arranged like floor tiles
  • Allows for rapid passage of substances

21

cuboidal cells

  • As tall as they are wide, shaped like cubes or hexagons
  • May have microvilli
  • Function in secretion or absorption

22

Columnar Cells

  • Much taller than they are wide, like columns
  • May have cilia or microvilli
  • Specialized function for secretion and absorption

23

Transitional cells

  • Cells change shape, transitioning from flat to cuboidal
  • Organs such as urinary bladder stretch to larger size and collapse to a smaller size

24

Where would one find simple squamous epithelium?

at sites for filtration or diffusion

lining of the small intestine

25

Where would one find simple cuboidal epithelium?

thyroid gland and kidneys

function in secretion and absorption

26

Where would one find columnar epithelium?

non ciliated:

  • Contains columnar cells with microvilli at their apical surface and goblet cells
  • Secreted mucus serves as lubricant for the lining of the digestive, respiratory, reproductive, and urinary tracts

Ciliated:

  • in the falopian tubes
  • in the small intestine

27

How you name the epithelial tissue depends on what?

the shape of the cells in the apical layer

28

Where would one find stratified squamous epithelium?

in the vagina

29

stratified cuboidal epithelium, where would one find that?

  • rare type
  • found in the esphagus
  • functions as protection

30

where is transitional epithelium found?

  • only in the urinary system
  • relaxed = cuboidal
  • stretched = squamous
  • ideal for hollow structure subject to expansion

31

Glandular Epithelium:  Endocrine Glands

  • Secretions, called hormones, diffuse directly into the bloodstream
  • Function in maintaining homeostasis
  • Examples include thyroid gland

32

____________ is the most abundant and widely distributed tissue in the body

connective tissue

33

list some of the functions of connective tissue

  • Binds tissues together
  • Supports and strengthen tissue
  • Protects and insulates internal organs
  • Compartmentalize and transport
  • Energy reserves and immune responses

34

 ___________ is the material located between the cells

Extracellular matrix

35

What are the three types of fibers?

  1. Collagen
  2. Elastic
  3. Reticular

36

List the 5 types of mature connective tissue?

  1. loose connective
  2. dense connective
  3. cartilage
  4. bone
  5. liquid connective

37

What are they two types of dense connective tissue?

  1. Dense regulare
  2. Elastic

38

What kind of conective tissue runs in bundles of collagen fibers arranged in parallel patters for strenght?

dense regular connective tissue

39

Give an example where elastic connective tissue resides in the body

  • lungs
  • arteries

40

What is the difference between dense regular & dense irregular connective tissue?

physical arrangement 

41

Which connective tissue is hard to heal?

cartilage because there is no blood vessel supply

42

What is the most abundant cartilage in the body?

Hylene

  • surronded by perichondrium
  • provies flexibility 7 support
  • reduces friction

 

43

Where is Fibrocartilage found?

found in intervertebral discs

  • strongest typed of cartilage
  • lacks perichondruim

44

What are the two types of cartilage growth?

  1. Interstitial - from within tissue
  2. Appositional - outer surfaces

45

___________ are flat sheets of pliable tissue that cover or line a part of the body.

Membranes

46

_____________ are a combination of an epithelial layer and an underlying connective tissue layer.

  • Mucous, Serous, and Cutaneous membranes

Epithelial membranes

47

What lines joints and contains connective tissue but not epithelium

Synovial membranes

48

Serous membranes

  • Line body cavities that do not open directly to the exterior
  • Covers the organs that lie within the cavity
  • Consist of areolar connective tissue covered by mesothelium (simple squamous epithelium) that secretes a serous fluid for lubrication

49

Synovial membranes

  • Line the cavities of freely movable joints
  • Lack epithelium
  • Synoviocytes secrete synovial fluid to lubricate and nourish the cartilage in the joint

50

What are the three types of muscleÉ

  1. Skeletal
  2. Cardiac
  3. Smooth

51

What are the distingushing factors to identify skeletal muscle

  • Striations
  • movment voluntary
  • shape: cylindrical, various length )up to 40 cm in lenght)

52

How do you identify cardia muscle tissueÉ

  • has striations
  • invlountary movment
  • intercalcated disk

53

How does one identify smooth muscle tissue

  • found in walls of hollow internal structures
  • non-striated
  • involuntary control

54

What typ types of nervous tissue is there

  1. neurons
  2. neuroglia