Tissues of the body develop from three primary germ layers, what are they?
nEndoderm, Mesoderm, and Ectoderm
All connective tissue and most muscle tissues derive from______________
Nervous tissue develops from_____________
Contact points between the plasma membranes of tissue cells. What are the 5 most common types:
- Tight junctions
- Adherens junctions
- Gap junctions
Web-like strands of transmembrane proteins
- Fuse cells together
- Seal off passageways between adjacent cells
Dense layer of proteins called plaque
- Resist separation of cells during contractile activities
- Located inside of the plasma membrane attached to both membrane proteins and microfilaments of the cytoskeleton
- Transmembrane glycoproteins called cadherins insert into the plaque and join cells
- In epithelial cells, adhesion belts encircle the cell
Contain plaque and cadherins that extends into the intercellular space to attach adjacent cells together
Resemble half of a desmosome
- Do not link adjacent cells but anchor cells to the basement membrane
- Contain transmembrane glycoprotein integrin
- Integrins attach to intermediate filaments and the protein laminin present in the basement membrane
Connect neighboring cells via tiny fluid-filled tunnels called connexons
_____________ consists of cells arranged in continuous sheets, in either single or multiple layers
What are the 3 major functions of epithelial tissue?
- Selective barrier
- secretory suface
- protective surface
Where would one find the apical surface?
faces the body surface, body cavity, lumen, or duct
there are 3 surfaces of epithelial cells, list them
- Apical surface
- lateral surface
- basal surface
Where would one find the lateral surface?
faces adjacent cells
Where would one find the basal surface?
opposite of the apical layer and adheres to extracellular materials
Thin double extracellular layer that serves as the point of attachment and support for overlying epithelial tissue
Single layer of cells that function in diffusion, osmosis, filtration, secretion, or absorption
- Appears to have multiple layers because cell nuclei at different levels
- All cells do not reach the apical surface
- found in: upper respratory & ducts of many glands
- Two or more layers of cells that protect underlying tissues in areas of wear and tear
- Thin cells, arranged like floor tiles
- Allows for rapid passage of substances
- As tall as they are wide, shaped like cubes or hexagons
- May have microvilli
- Function in secretion or absorption
- Much taller than they are wide, like columns
- May have cilia or microvilli
- Specialized function for secretion and absorption
- Cells change shape, transitioning from flat to cuboidal
- Organs such as urinary bladder stretch to larger size and collapse to a smaller size
Where would one find simple squamous epithelium?
at sites for filtration or diffusion
lining of the small intestine
Where would one find simple cuboidal epithelium?
thyroid gland and kidneys
function in secretion and absorption
Where would one find columnar epithelium?
- Contains columnar cells with microvilli at their apical surface and goblet cells
- Secreted mucus serves as lubricant for the lining of the digestive, respiratory, reproductive, and urinary tracts
- in the falopian tubes
- in the small intestine
How you name the epithelial tissue depends on what?
the shape of the cells in the apical layer
Where would one find stratified squamous epithelium?
in the vagina
stratified cuboidal epithelium, where would one find that?
- rare type
- found in the esphagus
- functions as protection
where is transitional epithelium found?
- only in the urinary system
- relaxed = cuboidal
- stretched = squamous
- ideal for hollow structure subject to expansion
Glandular Epithelium: Endocrine Glands
- Secretions, called hormones, diffuse directly into the bloodstream
- Function in maintaining homeostasis
- Examples include thyroid gland
____________ is the most abundant and widely distributed tissue in the body
list some of the functions of connective tissue
- Binds tissues together
- Supports and strengthen tissue
- Protects and insulates internal organs
- Compartmentalize and transport
- Energy reserves and immune responses
___________ is the material located between the cells
What are the three types of fibers?
List the 5 types of mature connective tissue?
- loose connective
- dense connective
- liquid connective
What are they two types of dense connective tissue?
- Dense regulare
What kind of conective tissue runs in bundles of collagen fibers arranged in parallel patters for strenght?
dense regular connective tissue
Give an example where elastic connective tissue resides in the body
What is the difference between dense regular & dense irregular connective tissue?
Which connective tissue is hard to heal?
cartilage because there is no blood vessel supply
What is the most abundant cartilage in the body?
- surronded by perichondrium
- provies flexibility 7 support
- reduces friction
Where is Fibrocartilage found?
found in intervertebral discs
- strongest typed of cartilage
- lacks perichondruim
What are the two types of cartilage growth?
- Interstitial - from within tissue
- Appositional - outer surfaces
___________ are flat sheets of pliable tissue that cover or line a part of the body.
_____________ are a combination of an epithelial layer and an underlying connective tissue layer.
- Mucous, Serous, and Cutaneous membranes
What lines joints and contains connective tissue but not epithelium
- Line body cavities that do not open directly to the exterior
- Covers the organs that lie within the cavity
- Consist of areolar connective tissue covered by mesothelium (simple squamous epithelium) that secretes a serous fluid for lubrication
- Line the cavities of freely movable joints
- Lack epithelium
- Synoviocytes secrete synovial fluid to lubricate and nourish the cartilage in the joint
What are the three types of muscleÉ
What are the distingushing factors to identify skeletal muscle
- movment voluntary
- shape: cylindrical, various length )up to 40 cm in lenght)
How do you identify cardia muscle tissueÉ
- has striations
- invlountary movment
- intercalcated disk
How does one identify smooth muscle tissue
- found in walls of hollow internal structures
- involuntary control
What typ types of nervous tissue is there