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Anatomy & Physiology - Kuntzman > Joints > Flashcards

Flashcards in Joints Deck (72)
1

List the 3 structural classification of Joints

  1. Fiberous
  2. Cartilaginous
  3. synovial

2

List the three functional classification of joints

  1.  Synarthrosis
  2. Ampiarthrosis
  3. Diarthrosis

3

Fibrous joints 

bones held together by dense collagen fibers

4

Cartilaginous joints

bones held together by cartilage

5

Synovial joints

bones held together by ligaments

6

Synarthrosis

an immovable joint

7

Amphiarthrosis

a slightly movable joint

8

Diarthrosis

a freely movable joint

9

What are the three types of fibrous joints

  1. Sutures
  2. Syndesmoses
  3. Gomphoses

10

What are some distinguishing features of Fibrous Joints

  • Lack a synovial cavity
  • The articulating bones are held very closely together by dense irregular connective tissue
  • Fibrous joints permit little or no movement
  • For example: coronal suture

11

What is the name of the type of Fibrous joint which charaterizes these features:

  • Immovable joint
  • Occur only between the skull bones

sutures

12

What is the name of the type of Fibrous Joint which charaterizes these features:

  • Permits slight movement
  • Interosseous membrane
  • Between the tibia and fibula in the leg

Syndesmoses

13

What is the name of the type of Fiberous Joint which charaterizes these features:

  • Immovable joint
  • Joint in which a cone-shaped peg fits into a cup shaped socket
  • Articulations of the teeth with the sockets of the maxillae and mandible

Gomphoses

14

Name the 2 types of cartilaginous joints

  1. Synchondroses
  2. Symphyses

15

What kind of joint has the following features:

  • Lack a synovial cavity
  • Allow little or no movement
  • The joint is tightly connected by cartilage

Cartilaginous Joints

16

Synchondroses

  • The Connecting tissue is hyaline cartilage
  • Found in Epiphyseal (growth) plate in bones

17

Symphyses

  • Slightly movable joint
  • Ends of the articulating bones are covered with hyaline cartilage, but a disc of fibrocartilage connects the bones
  • Pubic Symphysis is between the anterior surfaces of the hip bones
  • Also found in the intervertebral joints between the vertebrae

18

What kind of joint has the following features

  • Slightly movable joint
  • Ends of the articulating bones are covered with hyaline cartilage, but a disc of fibrocartilage connects the bones
  • Pubic Symphysis is between the anterior surfaces of the hip bones
  • Also found in the intervertebral joints between the vertebrae

Symphyses

19

What kind of joint displays the following features:

  • The Connecting tissue is hyaline cartilage
  • Found in Epiphyseal (growth) plate in bones

Synchondroses

20

Synovial Joints

__________ hold bones together for extra support

Ligaments

21

Synovial joints 

___________ hold bones together via bone to bone contact

Ligament

22

 

_________________ a space allowing a joint to be freely movable

Synovial cavity

23

___________ hold bones together via bone to muscle contact

tendons

24

Do you sprain a ligament or a tendon

a ligament

25

What is an articular capsule

  • A sleeve-like capsule enclosing the synovial cavity
  • The articular capsule is composed of 2 layers:
    • an outer fibrous capsule
    • an inner synovial membrane

26

_____________ is secreted by the synovial membrane lining the capsule

synovial fluid

27

What are the 4 functions of synovial fluid

  • lubricating the joint
  • absorbing shock
  • supplying oxygen and nutrients to the cartilage
  • removing carbon dioxide and metabolic wastes from the cartilage

28

  • Pads of cartilage lie between the articular surfaces of the bones
  • Allows bones of different shapes to fit together more tightly

Menisci

29

  • Sac-like structures containing fluid similar to synovial fluid
  • Located between tendons, ligaments and bones
  • Cushion the movement of these body parts

Bursae

30

  • Wrap around tendons
  • Reduce friction at joints

 

Tendon Sheaths

31

What are the four main categories of movement

  1. Gliding
  2. Angular movements
  3. Rotation
  4. Special movements

32

Gliding

  • Simple movement back-and-forth and from side-to-side
  • There is no significant alteration of the angle between the bones
  • Limited in range
  • Intercarpal joints

33

___________:

  • Decreases the angle between articulating bones
  • Bending the trunk forward

Flexion

34

_____________:

  • Increases the angle between articulating bones

Extention

35

_____________ is movement of the trunk sideways to the right or left at the waist

Lateral flexion

36

____________:

  • Continuation of extension beyond the normal extension
  • Bending the trunk backward

Hyperextension

37

_____________:

  • Movement of a bone away from the midline
  • Moving the humerus laterally at the shoulder joint

Abduction

38

_______________:

  • Movement of a bone toward the midline

39

______________:

  • Movement of a body part in a circle
  • Moving the humerus in a circle at the shoulder joint

Circumduction

40

_______________:

  • A bone revolves around its own longitudinal axis
  • Turning the head from side to side as when you shake your head “no”

Rotation

41

______________:

  • Upward movement of a part of the body
  • Closing the mouth

Elevation

42

______________:

  • Downward movement of a part of the body
  • Opening the mouth

Depression

43

_______________:

  • Movement of a part of the body anteriorly
  • Thrusting the mandible outward

Protraction

44

Movement of a protracted part of the body back to normal

Retraction

45

____________:

  • Movement of the foot medially
  • (Its opposing movement is eversion)

Inversion

46

Movement of the sole laterally

Eversion

47

Bending of the foot at the ankle in an upward direction

Dorsiflexion

48

Bending of the foot at the ankle in a downward direction

Plantar Flexion

49

Movement of the forearm so that the palm is turned upward

Supination

50

Movement of the forearm so that the palm is turned downward

Pronation

51

Movement of the thumb in which the thumb moves across the palm to touch the tips of the fingers on the same hand

Opposition

52

Synovial joints are classified based on type of movement

list the 6

  1. Planar (Plane Joints)
  2. Hinge
  3. Pivot
  4. Condyloid
  5. Saddle
  6. Ball-and-socket

53

Planar Joints

Primarily permit back-and-forth and side-to-side movements

Intercarpal joints

54

Hinge Joints

  • Produce an opening and closing motion like that of a hinged door
  • Permit only flexion and extension
  • Knee and elbow

55

Pivot Joints

Surface of one bone articulates with a ring formed partly by another bone

Joints that enable the palms to turn anteriorly and posteriorly

56

Condyloid Joints

  • The projection of one bone fits into the oval-shaped depression of another bone
  • Wrist

57

Saddle Joints

  • Articular surface of one bone is saddle-shaped, and the articular surface of the other bone fits into the “saddle”
  • Thumb

58

Ball-and-Socket Joints

  • Ball-like surface of one bone fitting into a cuplike depression of another bone
  • Shoulder and hip

59

What factors affect range of motion

  • Shape of articulating bones
  • Strength & Tension of joint ligaments
  • arrangement & tension of muscles
  • contact of soft spots
  • hormones
  • disuse

60

______________ joint is the combined hinge and planar joint formed by the mandible and the temporal bone

Temporomandibular Joint

61

Which joint has more freedom of movement than any other point of the body

Shoulder joint

62

What is the largest and most complex joint in the body

Knee joint

a modified hinge joint

63

Elbow joint, made up of what

and what kind of joint

of the Humerous, Ulna & Radius

Hinge joint

64

What may the result of age be on the joints

  • decreased synovial fluid
  • articular cartilage = thineer
  • discs and muscle may decrease in water content
  • ligamients shorten and loos some of their flexibility
  • osteoarthritis increase with age

65

What are the movements which the spine is capible of

  • Right & left side flexion
  • flexion
  • extention
  • lateral flexion

 

66

What are the movements of the shoulder, specifically the humeral-gleno joint

  • abduction
  • adduction
  • flexion
  • extention
  • internal rotation
  • external rotation

@ 90 degrees:

  • internal rotation
  • external rotation
  • horzontal adduction
  • horizontal abduction
  • circumduction

 

67

What are the movement capacities of the elbow

flexion

extention

supranation

pronation

68

What are the wrists opportunity of movement

flexion

extention

abduction

adduction

or ulneréradial deviation

69

Phalanges opportunity of movement

fexion

extention

abduction

adduction

Thumb = opposition

70

Femur opportunity of movement

flexion

extention

circumductin

adduction

abduction

internal rotation

71

Movement opportunites of knee

 

flexion

extention

internal rotation

external rotation

72

Ankle movement

dorsiflection

plantar flexion

inversion

eversion

circumduction