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Anatomy & Physiology - Kuntzman > Axial Skeleton > Flashcards

Flashcards in Axial Skeleton Deck (73)
1

Skull bones, auditory ossicles, hyoid bone, ribs, sternum and bones of the vertebral column are part of what division of the skeleton

Axial

2

List the 5 types of shapes of bones:

  1. Long

  2. Short

  3. Flat

  4. Irregular

  5. Sesamoid

3

What type of bone has greater length than width and slightly curved for strength

Long Bones

4

What type of bone are the phalanges?

long bones

5

What type of bone is cube shaped and nearly equal in lenght and width?

an example...

Short bones

Example: carpal & tarsal

6

What type of bone shape is the sternum concidered?

flat bone

7

What kind of bone has compact bone tissue enclosing a layer of spongy bone tissue?

Example

flat bones

cranial, sternum, ribs, scapulae

8

What type of shape bones are hip bones concidered?

irregular

as well, vertebrae, some facial bones, calcaneus

9

What are sesamoid bones and where do we find them?

  • Protect tendons from excessive wear and tear
  • Reside within the tendon
  • Patellae, foot, hand

10

What are sutural bones?

Small bones located in sutures of cranial bones

11

What are the 2 major types of surface markings?

  1. Depressions and openings
  2. Processes

 

12

Fissure

narrow slit between adjacent parts of bones through which blood vessels or nerves pass

Ie Superior orbital fissure of the phenoid bone

13

Foramen

Opening through which blood vessels nerves, or ligaments pass

Is optic foramen of the sphenoid bone

14

Fossa

shallow depression

ie coronoid fossa of the humerus

15

Sulcus

furrow along a bone surface that accommodates a blood vessel, nerve, or tendon

ie. intertubuclual suculus of the humerus

16

Meatus

tubelike opening

ie. ecternal auditory meatus of the temporal bone

17

Condyle

Large, round protuberance at the end of a bone

ie. lateral condyle of the femur

18

Facet

smooth flat articular surface

ie - superior artivular cacet of a vertebra

19

Process that froms a joint: head

rounded articular projection supported on the neck of a bone

ie the head of the femur

20

Crest

Prominent ridge or elongated projection

ie - Iliac crest of the hip bone

21

Epicondyle

Projection above a condyle

ie medial epicondyle of the femur

22

Line

long, narrow ride or border

ie linea aspera of the femur

23

Spinous process

sharp, slender projection

ie spineous process of the vertebra

 

24

Trochanter

Very large projection

ie - greater tubercle of the humerus

 

25

Tubercle

small rounded projection

ie - greater tubercle of the humerus

26

tuberosity

large, rounded, usually roughened projection

is Isitual tuberosity of the hip bone

27

List the 8 cranial bones 

  1. Frontal
  2. Right parietal
  3. Left Parietal
  4. Right temporal
  5. left temporal
  6. Occipital bone
  7. sphenoid bone
  8. ethmoid bone

28

List the 14 facial bones which form the face

Paired nasal bones, paired maxillae, paired zygomatic bones, the mandible, paired lacrimal bones, paired palatine bones, paired inferior nasal conchae and vomer

29

what kind of joints fuse most of the skull bones together?

Sutures

30

Which bone forms the forehead?

Frontal Bone

31

Parietal bones

Form the sides and roof of the cranial cavity

32

Which bone is butterfly shape that lies at the middle part of the base of the skull

Sphenoid bone

33

Ethmoid Bone

Located on the midline in the anterior part of the cranial floor medial to the orbits

  • A major superior supporting structure of the nasal cavity
  • Contain thin projections called conchae which are lined by mucous membranes
  • Increased surface area in the nasal cavity helps to humidify inhaled air trapping inhaled particles

34

Which facial bone forms the bridge of the nose?

Nasal bone

35

what is the name of the bone which forms the upperjawbone

Maxillae

36

Name the bone of the cheekbone

Zygomatic 

37

Which bone froms a portion of the midial wall of each orbit?

Lacrimal

38

Which bones form the posterior portion of the hard palate?

palatine

39

Where would one find the inferior nasal conchae

it forms a part of the inferior lateral wall of the nasal cavity

40


Where would one find the Vomer?

it forms the inferior portion of the nasal septum

41

Name the lower jawbone

mandable

42

What is the only movable skull bone

mandible

43

When one breaks their nose, what bone is broken

the nasal septum

44

Which bone divides the interior of the neasal cavity into right and left sides

nasal septum

45

What is a foramina?

Openings for blood vessels, nerves or ligaments of the skull

46

What are three unique featrues of the skull?

Sutures, Paranasal sinuses and Fontanels

47

What is an immovable joint that holds most skull bones together

Sutures

48

Paranasal Sinuses

  • Cavities within cranial and facial bones near the nasal cavity
  • Secretions produced by the mucous membranes which line the sinuses, drain into the nasal cavity
  • Serve as resonating chambers that intensify and prolong sounds
  • Lighten the skull

49

Fontanels

  • Areas of unossified (unhardened) tissue
  • At birth, unossified tissue spaces, commonly called “soft spots” link the cranial bones
  • Later replaced with bone to become sutures
  • Provide flexibility to the fetal skull, allowing the skull to change shape as it passes through the birth canal

50

Which bone does not articulate with any other bone?

Hyoid

51

what are the functions of the vertebral column?

  • Protect the spinal cord
  • Support the head
  • Serve as an attachment point for the ribs, pelvic girdle, and muscles

52

scoliosis

excessive curve laterally

53

Kyphosis

excessive conves curve

54

lordosis

excessive concave

55

How many vertebrae in the cervical spine

7

56

How many vertebrae in thoracic spine

12

57

How many vertebrae in the lumbar

5

58

How many fused cacral verebrae is the sacrum composed of

5

59

q1 coccyx consists of __ fused coccygeal vertebrae

4

60

what are the functions of the intervertebral discs

  • Form strong joints
  • Permit movement of the vertebral column
  • Absorb vertical shock

61

What does a vetebrae typically consist of?

  • A Body (weight bearing)
  • A vertebral arch (surrounds the spinal cord)
  • Several processes (points of attachment for muscles)

62

Which region of the vertebra have a bifid spinous process?

cervical region

63

Which region of the vertebra articulate with the ribs?

Thoracic

64

Which region of the vertebra is the largest, as is most weight bearing?

Lumbar

65

Which region of the vertebra provide for the attachement of the large back muscles?

Lumbar

66

The sacrum is a triangular bone formed by the union of_____________

five sacral vertebrae (S1–S5)

67

AT what age does the sacrum begin to fuse?

Begins at 16-18

complete by 30

68

The coccyx is formed by the fusion of usually _____coccygeal vertebrae

 

4

69

At what age range does the coccyx begin to fuse?

20-30

70

What physically makes up the thoracic cage?

  • Sternum (breastbone)
  • Ribs
  • Costal cartilages
  • Thoracic vertebrae

71

How many true ribs are there?

7

72

How many false ribs are there?

Rib 8 to Rib 10 = 3

73

Which ribs are the floating ribs?

Ribs 11 & 12