Endocrine system - 20 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Endocrine system - 20 Deck (30)
1

what are the two ways we maintain homeostasis

nervous system and endocrine sys

2

what is the greatest source of estrogen from our environment

plastic

3

When we are in a hurry to get our body to respond to something, what system will we use

nervous

4

In the endocrine system, what are the effectors

virtually any type of body cell so can have widespread effects on diverse aspects of metabolism

5

define endocrine gland

Secretions enter interstitial fluid and then  bloodstream Stay in the body: endo- Examples: all hormones such as growth hormone, insulin, adrenalin, estrogen, testosterone

6

define exocrine gland

Exocrine glands - exit the body Secrete substances that enter ducts Ultimately exit the body (exo-) Examples: mucus, saliva and other digestive secretions, sweat, tears

7

list the endocrine glands, which are specifically for hormone creation

Pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pineal

8

list the endocrine glands which secrete hormones but also have other functions

Hypothalamus, thymus, pancreas, ovaries, testes, kidneys, stomach, liver, small intestine, skin, heart, adipose tissue, and placenta

9

how do the lipid soluble hormones travel the blood stream

É

10

What are the lipid soluble hormones

Steroids, such as testosterone, estrogens Thyroid hormones: T3 and T4 Nitric oxide (NO)

11

What are the water soluble hormones

Amino acid derivatives, such as epinephrine, norepinephrine Peptides: antidiuretic hormone (ADH), oxytocin Proteins: insulin and growth hormone

12

why does the endocrine system require to be precisely regulated

because a small amount has a big effect

13

what is the effect of hormones binding to their target cells

for the target cells to alter their activity

14

how are hormones transferred through the body

blood system

15

________ serves as a major link between nervous and endocrine systems

Hypothalamus and Pituitary

16

what are the 2 hormones released from the posterior pituitary

oxytocin and ADH

17

How are the secretions of hormones regulated

signals from the nervous system chemical changes in blood other hormones

18

the anterior pituitary synthesizes how many hormones

7

19

where is the pituitary located

Located in depression in sphenoid bone just inferior to the brain

20

How is the pituitary attached to the hypothalamus

Pituitary is attached to hypothalamus by stalk (infundibulum)

21

pituitary has 2 lobes

anterior and posterior

22

Who`s the boss of the pituitary

hypothalamus

23

What are the 6 hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary

  1. Human growth hormone (hGH)
  2. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
  3. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
  4. Luteinizing hormone (LH)
  5. Prolactin
  6. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
  7. Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)

24

Human Growth Hormone (hGH) 

what tissues is it secreted by

 Secreted by liver, muscle, cartilage, bone cells

25

What does hGH promote the synthesis of

hGH promotes synthesis of insulin like growth factors (IGFs) = somatomedins

Actions of IGFs much like those of insulin

26

The regulation of hGH is regulated by what

By hypothalamic hormones

  • Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)
  • Growth hormone-inhibiting Hormone (GHIH )

By blood glucose levels

  • Low blood glucose levels à release of GHRH

27

What are the actions of hGH

Stimulates protein synthesis

  • Maintains muscle and bone mass
  • Promotes healing of injuries, tissue repair

Makes “fuel” (ATP) available for growth

  • Causes fat breakdown (“baby fat”) and release of fatty acids into blood
  • Breaks down liver glycogen à releases glucose into blood

28

Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone

TRH from the hypothalamus controls TSH secretion

29

in females, what does Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing Hormone (LH) do

In females

  • FSH starts follicle development à
    • Starts egg production
    • Starts estrogen production from follicle cells

LH stimulates formation of corpus luteum

  • Completion of egg and its ovulation
  • Secretion of progesterone + estrogen

30

in males, what does Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing Hormone (LH) do

In males

  • FSH - sperm production in testes
  • LH - release of testosterone from testes