Chapter 26 The Digestive System Flashcards Preview

Anatomy & Physiology - Kuntzman > Chapter 26 The Digestive System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 26 The Digestive System Deck (21)
1

Four layers from lower esophagus to anus

Mucosa
Submucosa
Muscularis
Serosa: visceral layer of peritoneum

2

Three pairs of salivary glands

Parotid
Submandibular
Sublingual

3

Salivary amylase (enzyme) breaks down what into what?

polysaccharides (starch)  maltose and larger fragments

4

Salivary amylase (enzyme) breaks down polysaccharides (starch) for how long

Continues in the stomach for about an hour until acid inactivates amylase

5

What are the four regions of the stomach

Cardia
Fundus
Body
Pylorus

6

Empty stomach lies in folds called

rugae

7

What kind of cells line the stomach wall

Epithelium: simple columnar; glands secrete mucus

8

what do parietal cells secrete

HCl and intrinsic factor

9

what do chief cells secrete

inactive enzyme pepsinogen

10

G cells secrete what

gastrin (hormone) into blood

11

Stomach Wall has Four Layers list them

Mucosa,
secretory cells
musclaris
serous membrane - serosa

12

List the three layers of the muscularis of the stomach and their fibre direction

Outer: longitudinal
Middle: circular
Inner: oblique (extra layer not in other organs) provides for efficient gastric contractions

13

Mesentery:

attaches small intestine to posterior wall of abdomen and provides route for vessels

14

what digests protein

Pepsin (pepsinogen + HCl) digests protein  peptides (small chains of amino acids)

15

which cells produce the pancreatic juice

acinar cells

16

what is the bile production and pathway?

Hepatocytes (liver cells) make bile -> Bile canaliculi -> bile ducts -> hepatic duct -> Gallbladder (green, pear-shaped organ that stores bile) -> Cystic duct -> common bile duct -> duodenum

17

Functions of bile

Emulsification: breaking apart clusters of fats so they are more digestible
Absorption of fats

18

Formation and recycling of bile

Bilirubin from heme when RBCs broken down
Bile is digested  stercobilin: gives feces brown color
Bile salts reabsorbed into blood in small intestine (ileum)  portal vein  liver

19

Polysaccharide stored in liver as ____________

glycogen

20

what are the seven functions of the liver

Carbohydrate metabolism; Lipid metabolism; Protein metabolism; Removes many harmful substances from blood; Excretion of bilirubin; Stores fat-soluble vitamins (ADEK) and minerals (Fe, Cu); activates vitamin D

21

what is the end of the small intestine

Ends in ileocecal sphincter (in RLQ)