Cardiovascular System: Heart Flashcards Preview

Anatomy & Physiology - Kuntzman > Cardiovascular System: Heart > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiovascular System: Heart Deck (53)
1

Where is visceral layer of the pericardium in relation to the Heart

adheres to the Heart

2

Where is the parietal layer in relation to the Heart

fused to the fibrous pericardium

3

The muscles of the Heart, where is the epicarium

the outer layer of the heart - attached to visceral layer

4

the muscles of the heart, where is the myocardium

cardiac muscle middle layer

5

pericardial fluid

the serous pericardium is Filled with pericardial fluid - reduces friction during beat.

6

the muscles of the heart, where is the endocardium

lines inside of myocardium innermost layer of the Heart wall

7

What are the upper two chambers of the Heart called

Atria

8

What are the lower two chambers of the Heart called

ventricles

9

Which chamber of the Heart is the thinnest

Atria the thinest

10

Superior & inferior Vena Cavae What do they do

Delivers deoxygenated blood to R. atrium from body

11

From the Right Atrium, list the flow of blood all the way through the system

Right Atrium -> Tricuspid valve -> Right ventricle -> pulmonary valve -> Pulmonary trunk and pulmonary arteries -> Lung capillary beds -> Pulmonary vein -> Left Atrium -> Bicuspid valve -> Left ventricle -> Aortic valve -> Aorta and systemic arteries -> capillary beds -> Either superior Vena Cava, Inferior Vena Cava or coronary sinus -> Right Atrium

12

Which Artery pumps de-oxigenated blood from the Heart

pulmonary artery

13

Which vein pumps oxygenated blood to the Heart

Pulmonary vein

14

Structurally what is distinctive between the Right and left ventricles

Left is larger because it pumps blood further - has resistance of the system to work against

15

can you live with atrial fibrulation

yes

16

can you live with ventricular fibrulation

no

17

What are valves designed for

to prevent back flow

18

Where is the Atrioventricular (AV) valves

Between atria and ventricles

19

tricuspid valve - Where

Between Right Atria and ventricle

20

bicuspid or mitral valve

Between Left Atria and ventricle

21

Where would one find the semi-lunar valves

Semi-lunar valves near origin of aorta & pulmonary trunk leaving ventricles off to lungs or system

22

What are the names of the semilunar valves

Aortic & pulmonary valves respectively

23

How does blood flow to the myocardium

coronary circulation

24

Where does the deoxigenated blood from the coronary circulation come back into the system

empties into the right atrium

25

When would we see the Bicuspid valve contract?

when we have ventricular contraction Purkinje fibers

26

Where does the origin of the action potential of the Heart begin?

SA node sinoatrial node

27

What is the route within the heart of the action potential

Normally begins at sinoatrial (SA) node -> Atria & atria contract -> AV node - slows -> AV bundle (Bundle of His) -> bundle branches R&L -> Purkinje fibers -> apex and up- then ventricles contract

28

What is an EKG or ECG

Recording of currents from cardiac conduction on skin = electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG)

29

P wave

P wave = atrial depolarization Contraction begins right after peak Re-polarization is masked in QRS

30

QRS complex

QRS complex = Ventricular depolarization Contraction of ventricle

31

T-wave

T-wave = ventricular re-polarization Just after ventricles relax

32

Where is the bottleneck controlling the action potential from Artial to Ventricular

AV node or Bundle of His

33

which one is faster? SA node or AV node

SA node - it is faster therefore runs the heart

34

ECG - where does the atrial contraction occur

P until Q

35

ECG - where does ventricular contraction happen

Q, R, S, T

36

ECG when does atrial depolarization happen

during the P wave,

37

ECG when does ventricular depolarization happen

during QRS complex, contraction of ventricle

38

ECG When is ventricular repolarization

During the T wave when ventricles relax

39

ECG When is re-polarization of Atria happening

During QRS

40

What happens after the T wave

ventricular diastole Ventricular pressure drops below atrial & AV valves open -> ventricular filling occurs

41

What happens after the P wave

atrial systole Finishes filling ventricle (`25%)

42

What happens after the QRS Wave

ventricular systole Pressure pushes AV valves closed Pushes semilunar valves open and ejection occurs Ejection until ventricle relaxes enough for arterial pressure to close semilunar valves

43

What is Stroke Volume

the amount of Blood ejected by the left ventricle during each beat

44

How can one increase the stroke volume

  • Increase diastolic volume increases strenght of contraction
  • increased venous return increase sympathetic activity

45

What will decrease the stroke volume

high back pressure in the artery

46

Which area of the brain effects the pacemaker

Cardiovascular center in Medulla

47

Which hormone of the parasympathetic system will slow the HR

ACh via vegas nerve

48

Which hormone of the sympathetic system will increase the HR

norepinephrine and epinephrine

49

Which sensory receptors are influencing the control on our HR

baroreceptors (aortic arch & carotid sinus) - B.P. Chemoreceptors - O2, CO2, pH

50

Na+ _____________ H.R. & contraction force

Increased

51

K+ ___________ H.R. & contraction force

decrease

52

What does Ca2+ do to HR and contraction force

Increased Ca2+ increases H.R. & contraction force

53

Purpose of the coronary sinus

deoxygenated blood collected by the coronary sinus empties into the right atrium