Somatic Senses and Special Senses 19 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Somatic Senses and Special Senses 19 Deck (81)
1

List our Somatic senses

Tactile: touch, pressure, vibration
Thermal (warm, cold)
Pain
Proprioception (joint, muscle position sense; movements of limbs, head)

2

Conscious or subconscious awareness of change in external or internal environment. What does this feedback loop require

Stimulus
Sensory receptor
Neural pathway
Brain region for integration

3

What senses are included in Rapid adaptation

pressure, touch, smell

4

Which senses are included in slow adaptation

pain, body position, chemical levels in blood

5

__________ decreased receptor response during prolonged stimulation

Adaptation

6

Which type of sensory receptors feel Pain, thermal, tickle, itch, some touch receptors

Free nerve endings

7

Which type of sensory receptors feel Touch pressure, and vibration

Encapsulated nerve endings

8

Which type of sensory receptors feel Hair cells in inner ear & Photoreceptors in retina of eye

Separate, specialized cells:

9

What are Mechanoreceptors
for

Cell deformation: stretching or bending
Touch, pressure, vibration

10

What are Nociceptors for

pain

11

Which senses use Chemoreceptors

taste, smell

12

Which type of receptors use Osmoreceptors

osmotic pressure of body fluid

13

Where in the body are somatic receptors densely distributed

Fingertips, lips, tip of tongue

14

What kind of touch receptors rapidly adapt for touch

Meissner corpuscles
Hair root plexuses: detect hair movement

15

What kind of touch receptors slowly adapt to touch

Type I mechanoreceptors: Merkel discs or tactile discs
Surface receptors: in epidermis
Type I mechanoreceptors: Ruffini corpuscles
Deep in dermis and tendons

16

Pressure receptors

Pacinian (lamellated) corpuscles
rapidly adapting
Widely distributed: in dermis, subcutaneous, around joints, tendons, muscles, periosteum

17

What kind of receptors respond to Vibration

Response to rapidly repetitive stimuli
Receptors: Meissner and pacinian

18

Itch:

chemical stimulation of free nerve endings
Bradykinin from inflammation response

19

Tickle:

from free nerve endings and pacinian corpuscles
Tickle requires stimulus from outside of self
Effects of attempts to tickle oneself are blocked by signals to/from cerebellum

20

How many kinds of thermoreceptors are there

2

21

Thermal sensations
Where are the cold receptors located, and at what temperature do they detect

Cold receptors: 10˚-40˚ C (50-105˚ F):
Located in epidermis

22

Thermal sensations
Where are the warm receptors located, and at what temperature do they detect

Warm receptors: 32˚-48˚ C (90-118˚ F):
Located in dermis

23

Outside of the ranges at which the thermoreceptors work, what happens if temperatures varie beyond that range

Outside these ranges: nociceptors detect pain

24

Nociceptors:

Free nerve endings in every tissue except brain
Can respond to any excessive stimulus
Minimal adaptation

25

Types of pain

Fast pain: acute, sharp pain
Well localized
Slow pain: chronic, burning, aching, throbbing
More diffuse (not localized)

26

What are the three types of olfactory cells

Olfactory receptors
Consist of olfactory hairs with chemoreceptors
These are first order neurons of olfactory pathway
Supporting cells
Epithelial cells: support, protect
Basal cells: stem cells that produce new neurons (receptors) throughout life

27

In the olfactory pathway, what are first order neurons

Olfactory receptors are neurons in nasal mucosa
Axons form olfactory nerves (cranial nerve I)
Extend through cribriform plate into cranium to olfactory bulb

28

In the olfactory pathway, what are second order neurons

Neuron cell bodies in olfactory bulb
Olfactory tract: axons extend from olfactory bulb to cerebral cortex (temporal lobe)

29

List the three types of papillae

Vallate (posterior)
Fungiform (all over)
Filiform: touch receptors only

30

Gustatory receptor cells

Gustatory hair projects from receptor through taste pore

31

Basal cells

Stem cells that produce supporting cells that develop into receptor cells (10 day life span)

32

What are the 3 different types of epithelial cells of the taste bud

Supporting cells that surround
Gustatory receptor cells
Basal cells

33

What is the sequence of events during the stimulation of a taste receptor

Tastant dissolves in saliva 
Enters taste pore  contacts gustatory hair 
Electrical signal produced 
Causes gustatory cell to release neurotransmitter
That activates dendrites of first-order neurons

34

What are the gustatory pathways from sensation to the brain

Cranial nerves transmit impulses
Facial (CN VII) from anterior of tongue
Glossopharyngeal (CN IX) from posterior
Vagus (CN X) from pharynx, epiglottis
To medulla oblongata
 Thalamus  primary gustatory area of cerebral cortex
 Limbic system or hypothalamus

35

Through which passageway could tears get to your nasal passages

Lacrimal canals  lacrimal sac  nasolacrimal duct  nasal cavity

36

What are the protective sources for the eyesÉ

Eyebrows, eyelashes: protection

37

What is the purpose of eyelids

protection and lubrication (blinking)

38

list the extrinsic muscles of the eyes

Superior rectus, inferior rectus, lateral rectus, medial rectus, superior oblique, inferior oblique

39

Describe the pathway from creation of tears to the surface of the eye

Lacrimal glands  lacrimal ducts  surface of upper eyelid  surface of eye 

40

of the eye, define
Choroid

lines most of internal surface of eye
Contains blood vessels that nourish the eye

41

In the eye, the
Ciliary body consists of

Ciliary processes: secrete aqueous humor
Ciliary muscles: changes lens shape for focusing

42

What is the Smooth muscle that dilates or constricts pupil

iris

43

The retina is composed of 2 layers, what are they

Neural layer
Pigmented layer

44

of the eye,
what is in the neural layer

Photoreceptor layer: rods and cones
Bipolar cell layer
Ganglion cell layer: axons of neurons here form optic nerve (CN II) that exits eye at optic disc (“blind spot” since no rods/cones here)

45

of the eye what is the pigment layer

helps absorb stray light
Between choroid and neural layer

46

rods

black-and-white vision; 120 million

47

cones

color sensitive; 6 million cones

48

list the 3 types of cones

3 types: sensitive to blue, green or red light

49

where do the majority of cones reside in the eye

Cones mostly in central fovea in center of macula lutea
Point of highest visual acuity (sharpness)

50

vision hits the back of our eyes, what layers does it travel through before the info is sent down the optic nerve

Photoreceptor cells (rods or cones) 
Bipolar layer 
Ganglion cells; their axons form optic nerve

51

What are the 2 cavities of the eyes and what are they filled with

Anterior cavity filled with aqueous humor
Vitreous chamber: filled with gellike vitreous body (not replaced)

52

Refraction

(bending) of light rays to focus them on retina

53

Accommodation

change of lens shape to focus for near (or far) vision

54

Constriction

(narrowing) of pupil to control amount of light entering the eye

55

Convergence of eyeballs:

for binocular vision

56

Myopia

(nearsightedness): can see near but not far objects.
Eyeball is too long so lens cannot accommodate enough to focus images of distant objects onto retina.

57

in order to see distant objects what must the ciliary muscles do

ciliary muscle relaxes  flat lens

58

for closeup vision, what does the ciliary muscle do

ciliary muscle contracts  fat lens (rounder = more convex)

59

Hyperopia

(farsightedness): can see far but not near.
Eyeball is too short so lens cannot accommodate enough to focus images of near objects onto retina.

60

Astigmatism:

irregular curvature of cornea or lens

61

Presbyopia:

aging change  loss of elasticity of lens  farsightedness  reading glasses

62

Disorders of myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism and presbyopia can potentially be corrected by what

These disorders can be corrected with lenses or LASIK (laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis)

63

how does the eye converge

Eyes rotate inward for binocular vision
By contraction of extrinsic eye muscles

64

Vitamin A deficiency decreases ___________ production and leads to night blindness.

rhodopsin

65

In rods light is absorbed by a photopigment _____________ which splits into _______________ and leads  receptor potential.

rhodopsin
opsin + retinal

66

decussation

1 : the action of crossing (as of nerve fibers) especially in the form of an X. 2 : a crossed tract of nerve fibers passing between centers on opposite sides of the nervous system.

67

What is in the outer ear

auricle, external auditory canal, and tympanic membrane (ear drum)
Canal contains hairs and ceruminous glands

68

what is comprises of the middle ear

auditory tube (eustachian tube) and ossicles (bones)
Ossicles (malleus, incus, stapes: attached to oval window)

69

list the names of the middle ear bones

Ossicles (malleus, incus, stapes: attached to oval window)

70

What is comprised of the inner ear

bony labyrinth + membranous labyrinth filled with endolymph
Cochlea: sense organ of hearing ,
Vestibule and semicircular canals: organs of balance

71

What does the vestibule consist of
what is it for

Two sacs: utricle and saccule
for balance

72

what are the 3 levels of the cochlea

Cochlear duct: membranous, has endolymph
Contains spiral organ (sensory organ for hearing)
Above: scala vestibuli: ends at oval window
Below: scala tympani: ends at round window

73

What affects our perception of pitch,
where is that located

wavelength
location in cochlea

74

what affects the perception of volume

loudness or intensity of waves

75

Static equilibrium:

senses position relative to gravity
As when head is tilted or a car is speeding up or slowing down

76

Dynamic equilibrium:

senses position in response to head movement
As in spinning movements

77

what are cerumen glands

excrete wax

78

what is our sense organ of hearing

cochlea

79

of the ear, where does the vestibular banch of C8 go to

vestibule and semicircular canals

80

of the ear, where does the cochlear banch of C8 go to

the cochlea

81

where is static equilibrium sensed

Sensed in maculae of utricle and saccule