Chapter 2 - Intro to Chemistry Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2 - Intro to Chemistry Deck (34)
1

how do you find the mass number of an atom?

add up the protons and neutrons

2

What is the difference between an ion and a molecule

An Ion is an atom that has either given away or received an additional electron, making it Cation/Anion
A molecule is to or more atoms of the same element or of different elements

3

Free Radical

an ion or molecule that has an unpaired electron

4

compound

a substance that can be broken down into tow or more different element by ordinary chemical means

5

chemical bond

forces that bind the atoms of molecules and compounds together

6

valence sheel

number of electrons in it's outermost shell

7

What kind of bonds are there?

ionic
covalent
hydrogen

8

Energy

the capacity to do work

9

potential energy

energy stored by matter due to its position

10

kinetic energy

energy of matter in motion

11

chemical energy

form of potential energy stored in the bonds of molecules

12

anabolism

building up - putting things together

13

catabolism

breaking down reactions

14

ATP

adenosine triphosphate
molecule of stored energy

15

metabolism

sum of the chemical reactions in the body

16

inorganic compunds

usually lack Carbon
held together by ionic or covalent bonds

17

Organic compounds

always contain carbon
always have covalent bonds

18

What are the special properties about water for life?

excellent solvent
participant in Chemical reactions
absorbs and releases heat slowly
requires a large amount of heat to change to gas
lubricant

19

What is an acid

a substance that breaks apart into one or more hydrogen ions when it dissolves in water
pH less than 7

20

What is a base

dissipated into hydroxide ions when in water
pH more than 7

21

Carbohydrates

organic compounds: C, H, & O
ratio 1:2:1
monsaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides

22

How do you brake down disaccharides & polysaccharides

dehydration synthesis reaction
or
hydrolysis to build

23

lipids

contain C, H & O
fats and oils

24

triglycserides

consist of three fatty acids (hydrophobic) attached to a glycerol backbone (hydrophilic)
move fats around the body

25

essential fatty acid

essential to human health, must be obtained from foods or suppliments

26

Phospholipids

glycerol head
2 non polar tails
makes up the plasma membrane

27

steroids

4 carbon rings
choleserol is the starting molecule for synthesis of other steroids in the body

28

proteins

contain C, H, O & N
some contain sulfur

29

amino acids

building blocks of proteins
amino group plus carboxyl group
peptide bonds

30

denaturation

protein encounters hostile enviro in which pH, temp, or ion concentration makes it loose it's shape = no longer functional

31

enzymes

speed up reactions
increase frequency of collisions
orienting colliding molecules
lowering activation energy

32

catalyst

speeds up a process without being changed

33

What are the three importatnt properties of enzymes

specificity
efficiency
control

34

what are the 4 most common elements in the body

C, N, O, H