Flashcards in Cardiovascular system Deck (113)
What leads to pulmonary oedema in LSHF?
If left ventricle fails first, it can't pump out all the blood it receives and blood backs up in the lungs
What is Congestive Heart Failure?
Heart is a failing pump.
Blood left in ventricles at end of each cycle causes Positive feedback cycle: Less effective pumping leads to even lower pumping capability
Often one side fails first
What is an artery?
A blood vessel carrying blood away from the heart
What is Ascites?
An accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity.
What is atherosclerosis?
A condition where cholesterol and lipid deposits accumulate on the inner layer of the medium and large blood vessels, leading to a narrowing in these vessels
What is an athromatous plaque?
A collection of lipids and cholesterol that accumulates in large and medium sized vessels
What are Atria?
The upper chambers of the heart
What is the Atrioventricular valve?
A heart valve made up of membranous flaps that allow blood to flow in one direction only; also known as the bicuspid valve
What is the Bicuspid Valve?
Also known as the atrioventricular valve. It is a valve in the heart that contains two cusps.
What is endocardium?
The endothelial membrane that lines the inner surface of the heart
What is the inferior vena cava and where is it in the body?
Large vein that returns de-oxygenated blood from parts of the body below the diaphragm to the right atrium.
What is the Mediastinum?
A subdivision of the thoracic cavity
What is the Mitral Valve?
The left atrioventricular valve
What is the Pericardium?
A double layered sac that encloses the heart
What is the pulmonary artery?
The vessel that takes de-oxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs
What is the pulmonary vein?
The vessel that returns oxygenated blood from the lungs to the right atrium
What is the semilunar valve?
A valve that prevents the backflow of blood to the ventricles after contraction
What is the superior vena cava?
The large vein that returns de-oxygenated blood superior to the diaphragm to the right atrium.
What is the Tricuspid valve?
The right atrioventricular valve
What is tunica externa?
Outer layer of blood vessels
What is tunica media?
The middle layer of blood vessels
What is tunica interna?
The inner layer of blood vessels
What is the structure and function of the tunica externa?
Composed of collagen fibres
Protects and supports blood vessels
Secures blood vessels to surrounding tissues
What type of nerve fibres supply the tunica externa?
Sympathetic nerve fibres
What type of tissue does the tunica media contain?
What tissue type is the tunica interna made up of?
Is the tunica interna smooth or rough?
Why is the tunica interna smooth?
To prevent friction from the flow of blood
What are the 3 groups of arteries?