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Flashcards in Cardiovascular system Deck (113)
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61

What leads to pulmonary oedema in LSHF?

If left ventricle fails first, it can't pump out all the blood it receives and blood backs up in the lungs

62

What is Congestive Heart Failure?

Heart is a failing pump.
Blood left in ventricles at end of each cycle causes Positive feedback cycle: Less effective pumping leads to even lower pumping capability
Often one side fails first

63

What is an artery?

A blood vessel carrying blood away from the heart

64

What is Ascites?

An accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity.

65

What is atherosclerosis?

A condition where cholesterol and lipid deposits accumulate on the inner layer of the medium and large blood vessels, leading to a narrowing in these vessels

66

What is an athromatous plaque?

A collection of lipids and cholesterol that accumulates in large and medium sized vessels

67

What are Atria?

The upper chambers of the heart

68

What is the Atrioventricular valve?

A heart valve made up of membranous flaps that allow blood to flow in one direction only; also known as the bicuspid valve

69

What is the Bicuspid Valve?

Also known as the atrioventricular valve. It is a valve in the heart that contains two cusps.

70

What is endocardium?

The endothelial membrane that lines the inner surface of the heart

71

What is the inferior vena cava and where is it in the body?

Large vein that returns de-oxygenated blood from parts of the body below the diaphragm to the right atrium.

72

What is the Mediastinum?

A subdivision of the thoracic cavity

73

What is the Mitral Valve?

The left atrioventricular valve

74

What is the Pericardium?

A double layered sac that encloses the heart

75

What is the pulmonary artery?

The vessel that takes de-oxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs

76

What is the pulmonary vein?

The vessel that returns oxygenated blood from the lungs to the right atrium

77

What is the semilunar valve?

A valve that prevents the backflow of blood to the ventricles after contraction

78

What is the superior vena cava?

The large vein that returns de-oxygenated blood superior to the diaphragm to the right atrium.

79

What is the Tricuspid valve?

The right atrioventricular valve

80

What is tunica externa?

Outer layer of blood vessels

81

What is tunica media?

The middle layer of blood vessels

82

What is tunica interna?

The inner layer of blood vessels

83

What is the structure and function of the tunica externa?

Composed of collagen fibres
Protects and supports blood vessels
Secures blood vessels to surrounding tissues

84

What type of nerve fibres supply the tunica externa?

Sympathetic nerve fibres

85

What type of tissue does the tunica media contain?

Smooth muscle
Elastic tissue

86

What tissue type is the tunica interna made up of?

Endothelia

87

Is the tunica interna smooth or rough?

Smooth

88

Why is the tunica interna smooth?

To prevent friction from the flow of blood

89

What are the 3 groups of arteries?

Elastic
Muscular
Arterioles

90

What are the vasa vasorum?

A network of blood vessels that supply the tunica externa with blood.