Flashcards in CCDM: TOPIC ANTHRAX Deck (22):
An acute bacterial disease that usually affects the
skin, but may rarely involve the oropharynx, mediastinum or intestinal tract.
What are symptoms of cutaneous anthrax?
Itching of exposed skin surface occurs first,
followed by a lesion that becomes papular, then vesicular and in 2–6 days develops into a depressed black eschar.
What are common sites of infection?
The head, forearms and hands
What are the effects of untreated anthrax infections?
infections may spread to regional lymph nodes and the bloodstream with overwhelming septicaemia
What is cutaneous anthrax has a case-fatality rate?
between 5% and 20%;
What is the causative agent of anthrax?
Bacillus anthracis, a Gram-positive, encapsulated,
spore forming, nonmotile rod
Human anthrax is endemic in which agricultural regions of the world?
Africa and Asia, south and central America, southern and eastern Europe.
What are some important characteristics of B. anthracis spores?
resist adverse environmental conditions and disinfection, may remain viable in contaminated soil for years. Dormant anthrax spores may be passively redistributed in the soil and adjacent vegetation through the action of water, wind and other environmental forces.
What is another way anthrax is redistributed?
Scavengers feeding on infected carcases
1-7 Days and possibly up to 60days in some cases.
Person to person transmission is rar.
What is the preferred disposal technique of animals infected with anthrax spores?
Incineration at the site of death or bury at death site as deep as possible without digging below local water table leve.
What is the specific treatment for Anthrax?
Penicillin is the drug of choice for cutaneous
anthrax and is given for 5–7 days.
What other treatments can be given if penicillin can't be given?
Tetracyclines, erythromycin and chloramphenicol are also effective.
U.S. military recommends what treatment for inhalation anthrax?
parenteral ciprofloxacin or doxycycline
How many injections does post exposure consists of?
What are the immunization intervals after exposure to anthrax?
starting as soon as possible after exposure and at 2 and 4 weeks after exposure.
What protocols must exposed personnel take?
Personnel should be decontaminated with soap and copious amounts of water in a shower. Bleach solutions are usually not required.
What should 1:10 dilution of household bleach (final
hypochlorite concentration 0.5%) should be used?
if there is gross contamination with the agent and it is impossible to remove the materials through soap and water decontamination.
How long is the bleach solution method used?
The bleach solution, to be used only after
soap and water decontamination, must be rinsed off after 10 to 15 minutes.
What protocols must First Responders take before entering an anthrax contaminated area?
Donning splash protection, gloves and a full face respirator with high-efficiency particle air (HEPA) filters (Level C) or selfcontained breathing apparatus (SCBA) (Level B).