Ch. 2.2 The Enlightenment Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 2.2 The Enlightenment Deck (19):
1

philosophe

leaders of the intellectual movement (Enlightenment)

2

deism

"religion" based on reason and natural law. God created universe but did not interfere with it

3

separation of powers

executive, legislative, and judiciary branches placed limits and controls on each other (system of checks and balances)

4

social contract

agreement among whole society to be governed by general will

5

laissez-faire

"to let do". state should not interfere with the economy

6

salon

elegant rooms of wealthy upper class's houses. discussed Enlightenment ideas - brought different classes together

7

(a) evidence

"Newton's discoveries in math and astronomy showed EVIDENCE that the physical universe followed regular natural laws."

8

(a) affect

"This experience AFFECTED Voltaire deeply."

9

(a) concept

"It was in America that Montesquieu's CONCEPT of separation of powers made a contribution."

10

(p) Isaac Newton

Englishman. made many discoveries in math and astronomy.

11

(p) Voltaire

Parisian. (greatest philosophe---arguably Voltaire or Locke). exiled to England after getting in clash with good background nobleman. wrote against France. opponent of Catholic Church. {Treatise on Toleration}. deist

12

(p) Montesquieu

French nobleman. {The Spirit of the Laws} political scientist. (research: small states-republic, large-despotism, moderate-monarchies). study England's gov't and thought of separation of powers. wrong about England but checks and balances later applied to U.S.

13

(p) Rousseau

French. poor middle-class. {Discourse on the Origins of the Inequality of Mankind}---people enslaved by gov't. {The Social Contract}---agreement among society, governed by general will. {Emile}---education should foster children's instincts. balance between emotion and reason. thought women=lowly, fragile creatures

14

(p) Adam Smith

Scotland. {The Wealth of Nations}---laissez-faire. argue supply and demand would naturally regulate economy. gov't should: 1. protect society (army) 2. keep up public works (ex. road construction) 3. defend citizens from injustice (police)

15

(p) Cesare Beccaria

{On Crimes and Punishments}---not helpful to use brutal punishments for criminals

16

(p) Denis Diderot

{Encyclopedia, or Classified Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Trades}---help spread Enlightenment ideas

17

(p) Mary Wollstonecraft

English. founder of women's rights movement. {A Vindication of the Rights of Woman}---women are equals

18

(pl) Paris

capital city of France. Enlightenment centered here.

19

(pl) London

capital of England. first daily newspapers printed here.