Ch3 Chronic Inflammation and Tissue Repair EC Flashcards Preview

Evan's Step 1 Prep Material > Ch3 Chronic Inflammation and Tissue Repair EC > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch3 Chronic Inflammation and Tissue Repair EC Deck (28):
1

Primary leukocytes of chronic inflammation

Monocytes/macrophages
Also lymphocytes, plasma cells, eosinophils

2

Granulation tissue

Blood vessels and fibroblasts
Precursor to scar formation
Fibronectin required

3

Fibronectin

Key adhesion glycoprotein of ECM
Chemotactic factor for fibroblasts and endothelial cells

4

Examples of caseating granulomas

TB
Systemic fungi (histo)

5

Examples of non-caseating granulomas

Sarcoidosis
Crohn's

6

Cell types in infectious granuloma

Activated macrophages (epitheliod cells - fuse to form multinucleated giant cells)
Th1 CD4 cells
TNF-alpha necessary for maintenance of granuloma (TNF-alpha inhibitors can result in systemic TB)

7

Regulation of the G1 to S checkpoint

p53 inhibits Cdk4 phosphorylation of RB, which allows cell to enter S phase

8

How does p53 induce apoptosis in cells in which the DNA is damaged?

Inhibits translocation of BCL-2 (usually antiapoptotic)

Inhibits translocation of MYC (growth promoting)

9

VEGF

Stimulates angiogenesis
Stimulated by TNF and hypoxia

10

FGF

Chemotactic for fibroblasts
Stimulates keratinocyte migration, angiogenesis, and wound contraction

11

EGF

Stimulates keratinocyte migration and granulation tissue formation

12

PDGF

Chemotactic, and angiogenesis

13

TGF-beta

Chemotactic for macrophages, lymphocytes, fibroblasts, and angiogenesis

14

IL-1

Stimulates synthesis of metalloproteinases
Stimulates synthesis and release of acute phase reactant proteins

15

TNF

Activates macrophages
Stimulates release of acute phase reactants

16

What is the initial collagen in wound repair?

Type III collagen -poor tensile strength

17

Function of metalloproteinases

*Contain Zinc*
Convert Type III collagen to Type I
Wound strength 80% original after 3 months

18

What is the most common cause of impaired healing? What is the most common pathogen?

Infection
S. aureus

19

MRSA mechanism of path

Produce Panton-Valentine leukocidin which accelerates PMN apoptosis

May progress to necrotizing fasciitis

20

How does diabetes mellitus increase susceptibility to infection?

Decreased blood flow
Increased tissue glucose (bug food)

21

How do nutritional deficiencies impair wound healing?

Malnutrition (decreased protein)
Vit. C/ Copper deficiency (decreased collagen cross linking)
Zinc deficiency (defects in removal of type III collagen

22

How do glucocorticoids impair wound healing?

Prevent scar formation by interfering with collagen formation and decrease tensile strength

*plastic surgeons inject steroids into wounds to prevent scar formation*

23

Keloids

Raised scars extending beyond borders of original wound
(bundles in same plane as epidermis)

24

Hypertrophic scar

Raised scar remaining in confines of original wound
(bundles in same plane as epidermis)

25

Collagen bundles

Random and haphazard
(keloids and hypertrophic scars in same plane as epidermis)

26

Wallerian degeneration

Distal degeneration of the axon

27

Reinnervation in peripheral nerve transection

Schwann cell proliferates from distal stump 2mm/day

28

Skeletal muscle post exercise

Myofiber repair by satellite cells (muscle stem cells)

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