Chapter 10 Vocab Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 10 Vocab Deck (88):
1

personality

an individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.

2

free association

in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing. 

3

psychoanalysis

Freud’s theory of personality and therapeutic technique that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts. 

4

unconscious

according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware. 

5

id

 a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. The id operates on thepleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification.

6

ego

the largely conscious, “executive” part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. The ego operates on the reality principle,satisfying the id’s desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain. 

7

superego

the part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations. 

8

psychosexual stages

the childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which, according to Freud, the id’s pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones. 

9

oedipus complex

according to Freud, a boy’s sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father. 

10

identification

the process by which, according to Freud, children incorporate their parents’ values into their developing superegos.

11

fixation

(1) the inability to see a problem from a new perspective, by employing a different mental set. (2) according to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved. 

12

defense mechanisms

in psychoanalytic theory, the ego’s protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality. 

13

repression

 in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness.

14

regression

psychoanalytic defense mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated. 

15

reaction formation

psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites. Thus, people may express feelings that are the opposite of their anxiety-arousing unconscious feelings. 

16

projection

psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others.

17

rationalization

psychoanalytic defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one’s actions.

18

displacement

psychoanalytic defense mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person, as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet.

19

sublimation

psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people re-channel their unacceptable impulses into socially approved activities.

20

denial

psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people refuse to believe or even to perceive painful realities. 

21

collective unconscious

Carl Jung’s concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species’ history.

22

projective test

a personality test, such as the Rorschach or TAT, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one’s inner dynamics. 

23

thematic apperception test TAT

a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes. 

24

rorschach inkblot test

the most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots, designed by Hermann Rorschach; seeks to identify people’s inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots.

25

terror management theory

a theory of death-related anxiety; explores people’s emotional and behavioral responses to reminders of their impending death.

26

self actualization

according to Maslow, one of the ultimate psychological needs that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one’s potential.

27

unconditional positive regard

a caring, accepting, nonjudgmental attitude, which Carl Rogers believed would help clients to develop self-awareness and self-acceptance. 

28

self concept

all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, “Who am I?” 

29

trait

a characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports.

30

personality inventory

a questionnaire (often with true-false or agree-disagree items) on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors; used to assess selected personality traits.

31

minnesota multiphasic personality inventory (MMPI)

 the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. Originally developed to identify emotional disorders (still considered its most appropriate use), this test is now used for many other screening purposes. (p. 496)

32

empirically derived test

 a test (such as the MMPI) developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups. (p. 496)

33

social-cognitive perspective

 views behavior as influenced by the interaction between people’s traits (including their thinking) and their social context. 

34

reciprocal determinism

the interacting influences of behavior, internal cognition, and environment.

35

personal control

 the extent to which people perceive control over their environment rather than feeling helpless. 

36

external locus of control

the perception that chance or outside forces beyond your personal control determine your fate. 

37

internal locus of control

the perception that you control your own fate.

38

positive psychology


the scientific study of optimal human functioning; aims to discover and promote strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive. (p. 508)

 

39

self


 in contemporary psychology, assumed to be the center of personality, the organizer of our thoughts, feelings, and actions. (p. 511)

 

40

spotlight effect


 overestimating others’ noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders (as if we presume a spotlight shines on us). (p. 512)

 

41

self esteem


 one’s feelings of high or low self-worth. (p. 512)

 

42

self serving bias


 a readiness to perceive oneself favorably. (p. 513)

 

43

individualism


 giving priority to one’s own goals over group goals and defining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications. (p. 516)

 

44

collectivism


 giving priority to goals of one’s group (often one’s extended family or work group) and defining one’s identity accordingly. (p. 516)

 

45

an individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.

personality

46

in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing. 

free association

47

Freud’s theory of personality and therapeutic technique that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts. 

psychoanalysis

48

according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware. 

unconscious

49

 a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. The id operates on thepleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification.

id

50

the largely conscious, “executive” part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. The ego operates on the reality principle,satisfying the id’s desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain. 

ego

51

the part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations. 

superego

52

the childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which, according to Freud, the id’s pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones. 

psychosexual stages

53

according to Freud, a boy’s sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father. 

oedipus complex

54

the process by which, according to Freud, children incorporate their parents’ values into their developing superegos.

identification

55

(1) the inability to see a problem from a new perspective, by employing a different mental set. (2) according to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved. 

fixation

56

in psychoanalytic theory, the ego’s protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality. 

defense mechanisms

57

 in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness.

repression

58

psychoanalytic defense mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated. 

regression

59

psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites. Thus, people may express feelings that are the opposite of their anxiety-arousing unconscious feelings. 

reaction formation

60

psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others.

projection

61

psychoanalytic defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one’s actions.

rationalization

62

psychoanalytic defense mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person, as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet.

displacement

63

psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people re-channel their unacceptable impulses into socially approved activities.

sublimation

64

psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people refuse to believe or even to perceive painful realities. 

denial

65

Carl Jung’s concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species’ history.

collective unconscious

66

a personality test, such as the Rorschach or TAT, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one’s inner dynamics. 

projective test

67

a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes. 

thematic apperception test TAT

68

the most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots, designed by Hermann Rorschach; seeks to identify people’s inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots.

rorschach inkblot test

69

a theory of death-related anxiety; explores people’s emotional and behavioral responses to reminders of their impending death.

terror management theory

70

according to Maslow, one of the ultimate psychological needs that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one’s potential.

self actualization

71

a caring, accepting, nonjudgmental attitude, which Carl Rogers believed would help clients to develop self-awareness and self-acceptance. 

unconditional positive regard

72

all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, “Who am I?” 

self concept

73

a characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports.

trait

74

a questionnaire (often with true-false or agree-disagree items) on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors; used to assess selected personality traits.

personality inventory

75

 the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. Originally developed to identify emotional disorders (still considered its most appropriate use), this test is now used for many other screening purposes. (p. 496)

minnesota multiphasic personality inventory (MMPI)

76

 a test (such as the MMPI) developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups. (p. 496)

empirically derived test

77

 views behavior as influenced by the interaction between people’s traits (including their thinking) and their social context. 

social-cognitive perspective

78

the interacting influences of behavior, internal cognition, and environment.

reciprocal determinism

79

 the extent to which people perceive control over their environment rather than feeling helpless. 

personal control

80

the perception that chance or outside forces beyond your personal control determine your fate. 

external locus of control

81

the perception that you control your own fate.

internal locus of control

82


the scientific study of optimal human functioning; aims to discover and promote strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive. (p. 508)

 

positive psychology

83


 in contemporary psychology, assumed to be the center of personality, the organizer of our thoughts, feelings, and actions. (p. 511)

 

self

84


 overestimating others’ noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders (as if we presume a spotlight shines on us). (p. 512)

 

spotlight effect

85


 one’s feelings of high or low self-worth. (p. 512)

 

self esteem

86


 a readiness to perceive oneself favorably. (p. 513)

 

self serving bias

87


 giving priority to one’s own goals over group goals and defining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications. (p. 516)

 

individualism

88


 giving priority to goals of one’s group (often one’s extended family or work group) and defining one’s identity accordingly. (p. 516)

 

collectivism