Chapter 8 Test Flashcards Preview

AP Psychology > Chapter 8 Test > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 8 Test Deck (66):
1

instinct

complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned.

2

drive

What motivates people to act certain ways

 

3

incentives

a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior.

4

Arousal theory of motivation: apply

 

Arousal theory states that we seek an optimum level of arousal, differs from person to person.

    Apply?

5

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

some needs are more important than others.  

 

self-actualization

esteem

love and belonging

safety

physiological needs

6

insulin

a hormone produced in the pancreas by the islets of Langerhans that regulates the amount of glucose in the blood. The lack of insulin causes a form of diabetes.

7

blood glucose

blood glucose level is the amount of glucose in the blood.Glucose is a sugar that comes from the foods we eat, and it's also formed and stored inside the body. It's the main source of energy for the cells of our body, and it's carried to each cell through the bloodstream.

8

??? Basal metabolic rate and how it rises/falls

9

Influence of culture on preferences

e.g. what you grew up eating influences food cravings you have (like Bedouins eating camel eyes)

10

Anorexia—apply

When a person stops eating and becomes underweight (15% or more) but keeps dieting because he/she thinks they are fat.

11

Weight and gender discrimination

People dislike people because of their gender or their weight?

 

12

Genetic and environmental influences on body weight

Environmental- junk food, fast food, no physical activity, family drives everywhere

    Genetic- if your parents are fat then you might be

 

13

?? Dieting and alcohol consumption

 

no

14

 Sexual drive and menstrual cycles

 

sexual drive is peaked during the ovulation stage of the menstrual cycle

 

15

Amygdala and arousal

Amygdala is the integrative center for emotions, emotional behavior, and motivation.

 

16

Guilty knowledge test: define

a psychophysiological questioning technique that can be used as part of a polygraph examination which purports to assess whether suspects conceal “guilty knowledge” by measuring their physiological responses while responding to a series of multiple choice questions.

 

17

Zajonc’s theory of emotion

Some emotional responses occur instantly, we feel before we think

 

18

What part of the face is most emotionally expressive?

the eyes- window to the soul

 

19

Nonverbal indicators of emotion

primarily facial expressions and gestures

 

20

Lying and facial detection

most people are not very good at it, but some are quite good (usually introverts)

 

21

Carroll Izard’s theory of basic emotions

 

Carroll Izard identified ten primary emotions: fear, anger, shame, contempt, disgust, guilt, distress, interest, surprise, and joy—emotions that cannot be reduced to more basic emotions but that can be combined to produce other emotions.

 

22

Fear and adaptation—apply

we learn to fear injury, punishment, etc. which keeps us from hurting each other, helps us to focus,

    this conditioning allows us to try our best to be safe

23

Evolutionary perspective—define/apply

fears like heights and snakes have been passed down from our ancestors who had to fear such things

 

24

What chemical activates amygdala neurons

serotonin

25

Catharsis hypothesis—define

emotional release. In psychology, the catharsis hypothesis maintains that "releasing" aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges.

 

26

Feel good do good phenomenon

When you feel good and then do something good,

    example- holding the door open for someone after you just did well on a test

 

27

Adaptation level phenomenon

Our tendency to form judgements, relative to neutral level defined by our prior experience

 

28

Relative deprivation

The perception that one is worse off relative to those whom one compares oneself    

Example- when you do poorly on a test when a friend does well, you feel worse off than them because they did better than you.

 

29

Behavioral medicine—define

integrates behavioral and medical knowledge and applies that knowledge with health and disease.

30

“tend and befriend” response

hypothesized stress response reaction that prompts humans to protect their own children, other children, people who are hurt or vulnerable, and to join humanitarian-oriented social groups that are intended to reduce human suffering. This often viewed as a type of altruism that is believed to be more associated with women, and is believed to be the reason behind the female tendency to use friendship and peaceful techniques to solve problems rather than force.

 

31

Stress moderating hormone released by cuddling

oxytocin

32

type a

type b

a-- uptight and annoying- higher risk for heart attacks

    Type B- relaxed and chill

33

34

complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned.

instinct

35

What motivates people to act certain ways

 

drive

36

a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior.

incentives

37

Arousal theory states that we seek an optimum level of arousal, differs from person to person.

    Apply?

Arousal theory of motivation: apply

 

38

some needs are more important than others.  

 

self-actualization

esteem

love and belonging

safety

physiological needs

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

39

a hormone produced in the pancreas by the islets of Langerhans that regulates the amount of glucose in the blood. The lack of insulin causes a form of diabetes.

insulin

40

blood glucose level is the amount of glucose in the blood.Glucose is a sugar that comes from the foods we eat, and it's also formed and stored inside the body. It's the main source of energy for the cells of our body, and it's carried to each cell through the bloodstream.

blood glucose

41

??? Basal metabolic rate and how it rises/falls

42

e.g. what you grew up eating influences food cravings you have (like Bedouins eating camel eyes)

Influence of culture on preferences

43

When a person stops eating and becomes underweight (15% or more) but keeps dieting because he/she thinks they are fat.

Anorexia—apply

44

People dislike people because of their gender or their weight?

 

Weight and gender discrimination

45

Environmental- junk food, fast food, no physical activity, family drives everywhere

    Genetic- if your parents are fat then you might be

 

Genetic and environmental influences on body weight

46

no

?? Dieting and alcohol consumption

 

47

sexual drive is peaked during the ovulation stage of the menstrual cycle

 

 Sexual drive and menstrual cycles

 

48

Amygdala is the integrative center for emotions, emotional behavior, and motivation.

 

Amygdala and arousal

49

a psychophysiological questioning technique that can be used as part of a polygraph examination which purports to assess whether suspects conceal “guilty knowledge” by measuring their physiological responses while responding to a series of multiple choice questions.

 

Guilty knowledge test: define

50

Some emotional responses occur instantly, we feel before we think

 

Zajonc’s theory of emotion

51

the eyes- window to the soul

 

What part of the face is most emotionally expressive?

52

primarily facial expressions and gestures

 

Nonverbal indicators of emotion

53

most people are not very good at it, but some are quite good (usually introverts)

 

Lying and facial detection

54

Carroll Izard identified ten primary emotions: fear, anger, shame, contempt, disgust, guilt, distress, interest, surprise, and joy—emotions that cannot be reduced to more basic emotions but that can be combined to produce other emotions.

 

Carroll Izard’s theory of basic emotions

 

55

we learn to fear injury, punishment, etc. which keeps us from hurting each other, helps us to focus,

    this conditioning allows us to try our best to be safe

Fear and adaptation—apply

56

fears like heights and snakes have been passed down from our ancestors who had to fear such things

 

Evolutionary perspective—define/apply

57

serotonin

What chemical activates amygdala neurons

58

emotional release. In psychology, the catharsis hypothesis maintains that "releasing" aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges.

 

Catharsis hypothesis—define

59

When you feel good and then do something good,

    example- holding the door open for someone after you just did well on a test

 

Feel good do good phenomenon

60

Our tendency to form judgements, relative to neutral level defined by our prior experience

 

Adaptation level phenomenon

61

The perception that one is worse off relative to those whom one compares oneself    

Example- when you do poorly on a test when a friend does well, you feel worse off than them because they did better than you.

 

Relative deprivation

62

integrates behavioral and medical knowledge and applies that knowledge with health and disease.

Behavioral medicine—define

63

hypothesized stress response reaction that prompts humans to protect their own children, other children, people who are hurt or vulnerable, and to join humanitarian-oriented social groups that are intended to reduce human suffering. This often viewed as a type of altruism that is believed to be more associated with women, and is believed to be the reason behind the female tendency to use friendship and peaceful techniques to solve problems rather than force.

 

“tend and befriend” response

64

oxytocin

Stress moderating hormone released by cuddling

65

a-- uptight and annoying- higher risk for heart attacks

    Type B- relaxed and chill

type a

type b

66