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Flashcards in Chapter 8 FRQ Deck (6):

drive reduction theory

Students should explain that drive-reduction theory is unlikely to be useful in explaining Marco's impulsive behavior. Marco's enthusiasm about the entire class passing the test is probably not related to a biological drive or homeostasis, so the drive-reduction theory does not seem like a direct or useful motivational theory for this example.



incentive theory

Students should explain that Marco may experience incentives for his behavior, that is, positive or negative stimuli that motivate our behaviors. Marco may have experienced positive stimuli in the past for his outgoingness, so he is motivated to continue his extraversion. (Note: This explanation may seem similar to Point 5, operant conditioning, but students need to be more specific in the operant conditioning point.)



hierarchy of needs

Students should explain that Maslow's hierarchy of needs may be a useful way of explaining Marco's reaction. Marco may have been motivated by his need for love and belongingness, believing that dancing on the table would increase his popularity with the rest of the class.




Students should explain that instinct theory is unlikely to help explain Marco's motivation, because Marco's behavior is unrelated to fixed, unlearned, inborn patterns of behavior that persist throughout the life span.


operant conditioning

Students should explain that Marco's reaction may have been operantly conditioned in the past. Students should identify a positive reinforcer that Marco may have received (such as laughter or approval of others based on his extraversion) in the past, which increased the likelihood that Marco would repeat his outgoing behavior.



genetic predisposition

Students should discuss the possibility that Marco may be genetically predisposed toward extraversion. Students could discuss related research findings, such as twin studies finding that identical twins are more similar in personality than fraternal twins.