Chapter 3B Vocab Flashcards Preview

AP Psychology > Chapter 3B Vocab > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 3B Vocab Deck (132):
1

lesion

tissue destruction. a naturallyor experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue

2

electroencephalogram (EEG)

an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface. measures by electrodes placed on the scalp

3

CT (computed tomography) scan

a series of X-ray photographs taken from diff. angles & combined by computer into a composite representation of a slice through the body / also called a CAT scan

4

PET (positron emission tomography) scan

visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task

5

MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)

technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images of soft tissue. show brain anatomy

6

fMRI (functional MRI)

technique for revealing bloodflow and therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans. fMRI scans show brain function

7

brainstem

oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; responsible for automatic survival functions

8

medulla

the base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing

9

reticular formation

a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal

10

thalamus

the brain's sensory switchboard;

located on top of the brainstem;

directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla

11

cerebellum

the "little brain" at the rear of the brainstem

processes sensory input and coordinates movement output and balance

12

limbic system

doughnut shaped neural system located below the cerebral hemispheres

associated with emotions and drives

13

amygdala

2 lima bean sized neural clusters in the limbic system

linked to emotion

14

hypothalamus

a neural structure lying below the thalamus

directs several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temperature), helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion and reward

15

cerebral cortex

intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres

the body's ultimate control and information processing center

16

glial cells

cells in the nervous system that support nourish and protect neurons

17

frontal lobes

lies just behind the forehead

involving in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments

18

parietal lobes

lies at top of head and toward the rear;

receives sensory input for touch and body position

19

occipital lobes

lie at back of head;

includes areas that receive info. from the visual fields

20

temporal lobes

lies roughly above the ears

auditory areas; each receives info. primarily from the opposite ear

21

motor cortex

area at rear of frontal lobes

controls voluntary movements

22

sensory cortex

area at front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations

23

association aras

not involved in primary motor / sensory functions

involved in higher mental functions such as learning remembering thinking and speaking

24

aphasia

impairment of language, caused by left hemisphre damage either to Broca's area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke's area (impairing understanding)

25

Broca's area

controls language expression

directs muscle movements involved in speech

26

Wernicke's area

controls language reception

language comprehension and expression

27

plasticity

brain's ability to change

especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience

28

neurogenesis

formation of new neurons

29

corpus callosum

large band of neural fibers connecting the 2 brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them

30

split brain

results from surgery that isolates the brain's 2 hemisphres by cutting the fibers connecting them

31

consciousness

our awareness of ourselves and our environment

32

cognitive neuroscience

interdisciplinary study of brain activity linked with cognition (perception, thinking, memory, and language)

33

dual processing

principle that info. is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks

34

tissue destruction. a naturallyor experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue

lesion

35

an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface. measures by electrodes placed on the scalp

electroencephalogram (EEG)

36

a series of X-ray photographs taken from diff. angles & combined by computer into a composite representation of a slice through the body / also called a CAT scan

CT (computed tomography) scan

37

visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task

PET (positron emission tomography) scan

38

technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images of soft tissue. show brain anatomy

MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)

39

technique for revealing bloodflow and therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans. fMRI scans show brain function

fMRI (functional MRI)

40

oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; responsible for automatic survival functions

brainstem

41

the base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing

medulla

42

a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal

reticular formation

43

the brain's sensory switchboard;

located on top of the brainstem;

directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla

thalamus

44

the "little brain" at the rear of the brainstem

processes sensory input and coordinates movement output and balance

cerebellum

45

doughnut shaped neural system located below the cerebral hemispheres

associated with emotions and drives

limbic system

46

2 lima bean sized neural clusters in the limbic system

linked to emotion

amygdala

47

a neural structure lying below the thalamus

directs several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temperature), helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion and reward

hypothalamus

48

intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres

the body's ultimate control and information processing center

cerebral cortex

49

cells in the nervous system that support nourish and protect neurons

glial cells

50

lies just behind the forehead

involving in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments

frontal lobes

51

lies at top of head and toward the rear;

receives sensory input for touch and body position

parietal lobes

52

lie at back of head;

includes areas that receive info. from the visual fields

occipital lobes

53

lies roughly above the ears

auditory areas; each receives info. primarily from the opposite ear

temporal lobes

54

area at rear of frontal lobes

controls voluntary movements

motor cortex

55

area at front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations

sensory cortex

56

not involved in primary motor / sensory functions

involved in higher mental functions such as learning remembering thinking and speaking

association aras

57

impairment of language, caused by left hemisphre damage either to Broca's area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke's area (impairing understanding)

aphasia

58

controls language expression

directs muscle movements involved in speech

Broca's area

59

controls language reception

language comprehension and expression

Wernicke's area

60

brain's ability to change

especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience

plasticity

61

formation of new neurons

neurogenesis

62

large band of neural fibers connecting the 2 brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them

corpus callosum

63

results from surgery that isolates the brain's 2 hemisphres by cutting the fibers connecting them

split brain

64

our awareness of ourselves and our environment

consciousness

65

interdisciplinary study of brain activity linked with cognition (perception, thinking, memory, and language)

cognitive neuroscience

66

principle that info. is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks

dual processing

67

lesion

tissue destruction. a naturallyor experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue

68

electroencephalogram (EEG)

an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface. measures by electrodes placed on the scalp

69

CT (computed tomography) scan

a series of X-ray photographs taken from diff. angles & combined by computer into a composite representation of a slice through the body / also called a CAT scan

70

PET (positron emission tomography) scan

visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task

71

MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)

technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images of soft tissue. show brain anatomy

72

fMRI (functional MRI)

technique for revealing bloodflow and therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans. fMRI scans show brain function

73

brainstem

oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; responsible for automatic survival functions

74

medulla

the base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing

75

reticular formation

a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal

76

thalamus

the brain's sensory switchboard;

located on top of the brainstem;

directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla

77

cerebellum

the "little brain" at the rear of the brainstem

processes sensory input and coordinates movement output and balance

78

limbic system

doughnut shaped neural system located below the cerebral hemispheres

associated with emotions and drives

79

amygdala

2 lima bean sized neural clusters in the limbic system

linked to emotion

80

hypothalamus

a neural structure lying below the thalamus

directs several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temperature), helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion and reward

81

cerebral cortex

intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres

the body's ultimate control and information processing center

82

glial cells

cells in the nervous system that support nourish and protect neurons

83

frontal lobes

lies just behind the forehead

involving in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments

84

parietal lobes

lies at top of head and toward the rear;

receives sensory input for touch and body position

85

occipital lobes

lie at back of head;

includes areas that receive info. from the visual fields

86

temporal lobes

lies roughly above the ears

auditory areas; each receives info. primarily from the opposite ear

87

motor cortex

area at rear of frontal lobes

controls voluntary movements

88

sensory cortex

area at front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations

89

association aras

not involved in primary motor / sensory functions

involved in higher mental functions such as learning remembering thinking and speaking

90

aphasia

impairment of language, caused by left hemisphre damage either to Broca's area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke's area (impairing understanding)

91

Broca's area

controls language expression

directs muscle movements involved in speech

92

Wernicke's area

controls language reception

language comprehension and expression

93

plasticity

brain's ability to change

especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience

94

neurogenesis

formation of new neurons

95

corpus callosum

large band of neural fibers connecting the 2 brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them

96

split brain

results from surgery that isolates the brain's 2 hemisphres by cutting the fibers connecting them

97

consciousness

our awareness of ourselves and our environment

98

cognitive neuroscience

interdisciplinary study of brain activity linked with cognition (perception, thinking, memory, and language)

99

dual processing

principle that info. is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks

100

tissue destruction. a naturallyor experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue

lesion

101

an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface. measures by electrodes placed on the scalp

electroencephalogram (EEG)

102

a series of X-ray photographs taken from diff. angles & combined by computer into a composite representation of a slice through the body / also called a CAT scan

CT (computed tomography) scan

103

visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task

PET (positron emission tomography) scan

104

technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images of soft tissue. show brain anatomy

MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)

105

technique for revealing bloodflow and therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans. fMRI scans show brain function

fMRI (functional MRI)

106

oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; responsible for automatic survival functions

brainstem

107

the base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing

medulla

108

a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal

reticular formation

109

the brain's sensory switchboard;

located on top of the brainstem;

directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla

thalamus

110

the "little brain" at the rear of the brainstem

processes sensory input and coordinates movement output and balance

cerebellum

111

doughnut shaped neural system located below the cerebral hemispheres

associated with emotions and drives

limbic system

112

2 lima bean sized neural clusters in the limbic system

linked to emotion

amygdala

113

a neural structure lying below the thalamus

directs several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temperature), helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion and reward

hypothalamus

114

intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres

the body's ultimate control and information processing center

cerebral cortex

115

cells in the nervous system that support nourish and protect neurons

glial cells

116

lies just behind the forehead

involving in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments

frontal lobes

117

lies at top of head and toward the rear;

receives sensory input for touch and body position

parietal lobes

118

lie at back of head;

includes areas that receive info. from the visual fields

occipital lobes

119

lies roughly above the ears

auditory areas; each receives info. primarily from the opposite ear

temporal lobes

120

area at rear of frontal lobes

controls voluntary movements

motor cortex

121

area at front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations

sensory cortex

122

not involved in primary motor / sensory functions

involved in higher mental functions such as learning remembering thinking and speaking

association aras

123

impairment of language, caused by left hemisphre damage either to Broca's area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke's area (impairing understanding)

aphasia

124

controls language expression

directs muscle movements involved in speech

Broca's area

125

controls language reception

language comprehension and expression

Wernicke's area

126

brain's ability to change

especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience

plasticity

127

formation of new neurons

neurogenesis

128

large band of neural fibers connecting the 2 brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them

corpus callosum

129

results from surgery that isolates the brain's 2 hemisphres by cutting the fibers connecting them

split brain

130

our awareness of ourselves and our environment

consciousness

131

interdisciplinary study of brain activity linked with cognition (perception, thinking, memory, and language)

cognitive neuroscience

132

principle that info. is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks

dual processing