Chapter 1 Vocab Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Vocab Deck (62):
1

empiricism

the view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should, therefore, rely on observation and experimentation

2

structuralism

 an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the structural elements of the human mind

3

functionalism

a school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes function—how they enable us to adapt, survive, and flourish

4

experimental psychology

the study of behavior and thinking using the experimental method

5

behaviorism

the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2)

6

humanistic psychology

historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people and the individual’s potential for personal growth

7

cognitive neuroscience

the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language)

8

psychology

the science of behavior and mental processes

9

nature-nurture issue

the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors. Today’s science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture

10

natural selection

the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations

11

levels of analysis

the differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon

12

biopsychosocial approach

an integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis

13

biological psychology

 a branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology and behavior.

14

evolutionary psychology

the study of the roots of behavior and mental processes using the principles of natural selection

15

psychodynamic psychology

 a branch of psychology that studies how unconscious drives and conflicts influence behavior, and uses that information to treat people with psychological disorders. 

16

behavioral psychology

the scientific study of observable behavior, and its explanation by principles of learning.

17

cognitive psychology

the scientific study of all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.

18

social-cultural psychology

 the study of how situations and cultures affect our behavior and thinking. 

19

psychometrics

 the scientific study of the measurement of human abilities, attitudes, and traits.

20

basic research

pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base.

21

developmental psychology

a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span

22

educational psychology

the study of how psychological processes affect and can enhance teaching and learning.

23

personality psychology

the study of an individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting

24

social psychology

the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another. 

25

applied research

scientific study that aims to solve practical problems.

26

industrial organization (IO) psychology

he application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces

27

human factors psychology

a branch of psychology that explores how people and machines interact and how machines and physical environments can be made safe and easy to use. 

28

counselling psychology

a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being.

29

clinical psychology

a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders.

30

psychiatry

a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who often provide medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy.

31

SQ3R

a study method incorporating five stepsSurvey, Question, Read, Rehearse, Review.

32

the view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should, therefore, rely on observation and experimentation

empiricism

33

 an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the structural elements of the human mind

structuralism

34

a school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes function—how they enable us to adapt, survive, and flourish

functionalism

35

the study of behavior and thinking using the experimental method

experimental psychology

36

the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2)

behaviorism

37

historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people and the individual’s potential for personal growth

humanistic psychology

38

the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language)

cognitive neuroscience

39

the science of behavior and mental processes

psychology

40

the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors. Today’s science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture

nature-nurture issue

41

the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations

natural selection

42

the differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon

levels of analysis

43

an integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis

biopsychosocial approach

44

 a branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology and behavior.

biological psychology

45

the study of the roots of behavior and mental processes using the principles of natural selection

evolutionary psychology

46

 a branch of psychology that studies how unconscious drives and conflicts influence behavior, and uses that information to treat people with psychological disorders. 

psychodynamic psychology

47

the scientific study of observable behavior, and its explanation by principles of learning.

behavioral psychology

48

the scientific study of all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.

cognitive psychology

49

 the study of how situations and cultures affect our behavior and thinking. 

social-cultural psychology

50

 the scientific study of the measurement of human abilities, attitudes, and traits.

psychometrics

51

pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base.

basic research

52

a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span

developmental psychology

53

the study of how psychological processes affect and can enhance teaching and learning.

educational psychology

54

the study of an individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting

personality psychology

55

the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another. 

social psychology

56

scientific study that aims to solve practical problems.

applied research

57

he application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces

industrial organization (IO) psychology

58

a branch of psychology that explores how people and machines interact and how machines and physical environments can be made safe and easy to use. 

human factors psychology

59

a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being.

counselling psychology

60

a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders.

clinical psychology

61

a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who often provide medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy.

psychiatry

62

a study method incorporating five stepsSurvey, Question, Read, Rehearse, Review.

SQ3R