learning not to respond to the repeated presence of a stimulus (constantly hearing sirens)
A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher
classical conditioning = isaac pavlov
Pavlov discovered that a neutral stimulus, when paired with a neutral reflex- producing stimulus will begin to produce a learned response, even when it is presented by itself
the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus
in Pavlov’s experiment, his dogs’ drool when the bell was rung
the originally neutral stimulus that gains the power to cause the response
in Pavlov’s experiment, the bell began to produce the same response that the food once did
the learning stage during which the conditioned response comes to be elicited by the conditioned stimulus
during acquisition, a neutral stimulus is paired with the unconditioned stimulus
after several trials the neutral stimulus will gradually begin to elicit the same response as the UCS
higher order conditioning
a procedure in which the conditioned stimulus in one conditioning experience is paired with a new neutral stimulus, creating a second (often weaker) conditioned stimulus. For example, an animal that has learned that a tone predicts food might then learn that a light predicts the tone and begin responding to the light alone. (Also called second-order conditioning.)
difference between conditioned and unconditioned stimulus...
when does extinction occur
when a response is no longer reinforced
the ability to distinguish between two similar signals stimulus
a bell ending class vs. the fire alarm
door bell vs. fire alarm
the relationship of cognitive processes in classical conditioning
after repeat failure in something, people will give up → become helpless
rats and radiation treatments
looking at biological, psychological, and social circumstances that lead to a person’s behavior
Why was Pavlov’s research so important?
and the next five after this
what is a skinner's box
A chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer, with attached devices to record the animal's rate of bar pressing or key pecking. Used in operant conditioning research.
the relationship between positive and negative reinforcers and their impact on operant response
both are used to encourage the continuance of a behavior, but positive reinforcers do so by adding a desirable experience/event while negative reinforcers take it away
apply negative reinforcement
paired with a primary reinforcer to fulfill a need (e.g. money which buys food which fulfills hunger)
fulfill biological need: food, warmth, shelter, etc.
reinforcing behavior immediately after it is done correctly
fixed ratio reinforcement
a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses
variable ratio reinforcement
a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses.
fixed interval reinforcement
a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed.
the relationship between negative reinforcement and punishment
both take away a desirable event/item, but reinforcement is used to encourage the continuing of a behavior while punishment is to encourage the stopping of a behavior
What techniques of reinforcement for child rearing do most psychologists favor?
What is the relationship between latent learning and cognitive processes?
latent learning- learning that occurs but is not apparent until the learner has an incentive to demonstrate it (taking tests)
intrinsic and extrinsic motivation
intrinsic: doing something because it’s the right thing to do
extrinsic: doing something in fear of punishment or for a reward
Define biological predispositions and apply to training
when a subject (human, animal, plant) possesses some internal quality that gives them an increased likelihood of having a condition.
i.e. when training animals
the tendency of an animal to revert to instinctive behaviors that interfere with a conditioned response.
What according to Skinner controls human behavior?
how did skinner explain prosocial behavior
positive, constructive, helpful behavior. The opposite of antisocial behavior.
criticisms of skinner
not enough focus on cognitive functions/abilities
a system for electronically recording, amplifying, and feeding back information regarding a subtle physiological state, such as blood pressure or muscle tension.
learning by observing others. Also called social learning.
the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior.
frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. The brain’s mirroring of another’s action may enable imitation and empathy.