Chapter 6 Test Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6 Test Deck (38):
1

habituation

learning not to respond to the repeated presence of a stimulus (constantly hearing sirens)

2

operant conditioning

A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher

3

classical conditioning = isaac pavlov

Pavlov discovered that a neutral stimulus, when paired with a neutral reflex- producing stimulus will begin to produce a learned response, even when it is presented by itself

4

conditioned response

the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus

in Pavlov’s experiment, his dogs’ drool when the bell was rung

5

conditioned stimulus

the originally neutral stimulus that gains the power to cause the response

in Pavlov’s experiment, the bell began to produce the same response that the food once did

6

acquisition

the learning stage during which the conditioned response comes to be elicited by the conditioned stimulus

during acquisition, a neutral stimulus is paired with the unconditioned stimulus

after several trials the neutral stimulus will gradually begin to elicit the same response as the UCS

7

higher order conditioning

a procedure in which the conditioned stimulus in one conditioning experience is paired with a new neutral stimulus, creating a second (often weaker) conditioned stimulus. For example, an animal that has learned that a tone predicts food might then learn that a light predicts the tone and begin responding to the light alone. (Also called second-order conditioning.)

8

difference between conditioned and unconditioned stimulus...

9

when does extinction occur

when a response is no longer reinforced

10

discrimination

the ability to distinguish between two similar signals stimulus

a bell ending class vs. the fire alarm

door bell vs. fire alarm

11

the relationship of cognitive processes in classical conditioning

12

learned helplessness

after repeat failure in something, people will give up → become helpless

13

rats and radiation treatments

14

biopsychosocial approach

looking at biological, psychological, and social circumstances that lead to a person’s behavior

15

Why was Pavlov’s research so important?

and the next five after this

16

what is a skinner's box

A chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer, with attached devices to record the animal's rate of bar pressing or key pecking. Used in operant conditioning research.

17

the relationship between positive and negative reinforcers and their impact on operant response

both are used to encourage the continuance of a behavior, but positive reinforcers do so by adding a desirable experience/event while negative reinforcers take it away

18

negative reinforcers

19

apply negative reinforcement

20

conditioned reinforcers

paired with a primary reinforcer to fulfill a need (e.g. money which buys food which fulfills hunger)

21

primary reinforcers

fulfill biological need: food, warmth, shelter, etc.

22

immediate reinforcement

reinforcing behavior immediately after it is done correctly

23

fixed ratio reinforcement

a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses

24

variable ratio reinforcement

a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses.

25

fixed interval reinforcement

a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed.

26

the relationship between negative reinforcement and punishment

both take away a desirable event/item, but reinforcement is used to encourage the continuing of a behavior while punishment is to encourage the stopping of a behavior

27

What techniques of reinforcement for child rearing do most psychologists favor?

28

What is the relationship between latent learning and cognitive processes?

latent learning- learning that occurs but is not apparent until the learner has an incentive to demonstrate it (taking tests)

29

intrinsic and extrinsic motivation

intrinsic: doing something because it’s the right thing to do

extrinsic: doing something in fear of punishment or for a reward

30

Define biological predispositions and apply to training

when a subject (human, animal, plant) possesses some internal quality that gives them an increased likelihood of having a condition.

    i.e. when training animals

31

instinctive drift

the tendency of an animal to revert to instinctive behaviors that interfere with a conditioned response.

32

What according to Skinner controls human behavior?

environment

33

how did skinner explain prosocial behavior

positive, constructive, helpful behavior. The opposite of antisocial behavior.

34

criticisms of skinner

not enough focus on cognitive functions/abilities

35

biofeedback

a system for electronically recording, amplifying, and feeding back information regarding a subtle physiological state, such as blood pressure or muscle tension.

36

observational learning

learning by observing others. Also called social learning.

37

modeling

the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior.

38

mirror neurons

frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. The brain’s mirroring of another’s action may enable imitation and empathy.