Chapter 7A Vocab Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7A Vocab Deck (78):
1

memory

the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information. (p. 255)

2

encoding

 the processing of information into the memory system—for example, by extracting meaning. (p. 257)

3

storage

 the retention of encoded information over time. (p. 257)

4

retrieval

 the process of getting information out of memory storage. (p. 257)

5

sensory memory

the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system. (p. 257)

6

short-term memory

activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten.

7

long-term memory

the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences.

8

working memory

a newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory.

9

parallel processing

the processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain’s natural mode of information processing for many functions, including vision. Contrasts with the step-by-step (serial) processing of most computers and of conscious problem solving. 

10

automatic processing

unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings. 

11

effortful processing

encoding that requires attention and conscious effort.

12

rehearsal

the conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage.

13

spacing effect

the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice.

14

serial position effect

our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list.

15

visual encoding

the encoding of picture images. 

16

acoustic encoding

 the encoding of sound, especially the sound of words.

17

semantic encoding

the encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words.

18

imagery

mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding. 

19

mnemonics

memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices.

20

chunking

organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically.

21

iconic memory

a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second. 

22

ethoic memory

a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds.

23

long term potentiation (LTP)

an increase in a synapse’s firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory

24

flashbulb memory

 a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event.

25

amnesia

loss of memory

26

implicit memory

retention independent of conscious recollection. (Also called nondeclarativeor procedural memory.) 

27

explicit memory

 memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and “declare.” (Also called declarative memory.)

28

hippocampus

 a neural center that is located in the limbic system; helps process explicit memories for storage. (p. 272)

29

recall

 a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test. (p. 274)

30

recognition

 a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test. (p. 274)

31

relearning

 a measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time. (p. 274)

32

priming

 the activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing one’s perception, memory, or response. (pp. 121, 275)

33

deja vu

 that eerie sense that “I’ve experienced this before.” Cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience. (p. 276)

34

mood-congruent memory

 the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one’s current good or bad mood. (p. 278)

35

proactive interference

 the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information. (p. 282)

36

retroactive interference


the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information. (p. 282)

 

37

repression


 in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness. (pp. 284, 483)

 

38

misinformation effect


 incorporating misleading information into one’s memory of an event. (p. 286)

 

39

source amnesia


 attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined. (Also called source misattribution.) Source amnesia, along with the misinformation effect, is at the heart of many false memories. (p. 287)

 

40

the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information. (p. 255)

memory

41

 the processing of information into the memory system—for example, by extracting meaning. (p. 257)

encoding

42

 the retention of encoded information over time. (p. 257)

storage

43

 the process of getting information out of memory storage. (p. 257)

retrieval

44

the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system. (p. 257)

sensory memory

45

activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten.

short-term memory

46

the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences.

long-term memory

47

a newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory.

working memory

48

the processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain’s natural mode of information processing for many functions, including vision. Contrasts with the step-by-step (serial) processing of most computers and of conscious problem solving. 

parallel processing

49

unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings. 

automatic processing

50

encoding that requires attention and conscious effort.

effortful processing

51

the conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage.

rehearsal

52

the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice.

spacing effect

53

our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list.

serial position effect

54

the encoding of picture images. 

visual encoding

55

 the encoding of sound, especially the sound of words.

acoustic encoding

56

the encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words.

semantic encoding

57

mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding. 

imagery

58

memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices.

mnemonics

59

organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically.

chunking

60

a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second. 

iconic memory

61

a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds.

ethoic memory

62

an increase in a synapse’s firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory

long term potentiation (LTP)

63

 a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event.

flashbulb memory

64

loss of memory

amnesia

65

retention independent of conscious recollection. (Also called nondeclarativeor procedural memory.) 

implicit memory

66

 memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and “declare.” (Also called declarative memory.)

explicit memory

67

 a neural center that is located in the limbic system; helps process explicit memories for storage. (p. 272)

hippocampus

68

 a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test. (p. 274)

recall

69

 a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test. (p. 274)

recognition

70

 a measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time. (p. 274)

relearning

71

 the activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing one’s perception, memory, or response. (pp. 121, 275)

priming

72

 that eerie sense that “I’ve experienced this before.” Cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience. (p. 276)

deja vu

73

 the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one’s current good or bad mood. (p. 278)

mood-congruent memory

74

 the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information. (p. 282)

proactive interference

75


the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information. (p. 282)

 

retroactive interference

76


 in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness. (pp. 284, 483)

 

repression

77


 incorporating misleading information into one’s memory of an event. (p. 286)

 

misinformation effect

78


 attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined. (Also called source misattribution.) Source amnesia, along with the misinformation effect, is at the heart of many false memories. (p. 287)

 

source amnesia