a method for assessing an individual’s mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others, using numerical scores.
mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations.
a general intelligence factor that, according to Spearman and others, underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test.
a statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factors) on a test; used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie a person’s total score.
a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing. (p. 525)
the ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions. (p. 528)
a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet; the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance. Thus, a child who does as well as the average 8-year-old is said to have a mental age of 8. (p. 533)
the widely used American revision (by Terman at Stanford University) of Binet’s original intelligence test. (p. 534)
intelligence quotient (iq)
defined originally as the ratio of mental age (ma) to chronological age(ca) multiplied by 100 (thus, IQ = ma/ca × 100). On contemporary intelligence tests, the average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100. (p. 534)
tests designed to assess what a person has learned. (p. 535)
tests designed to predict a person’s future performance; aptitude is the capacity to learn. (p. 535)
wechsier adult intelligence scale (wais)
the WAIS is the most widely used intelligence test; contains verbal and performance (nonverbal) subtests. (p. 535)
defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested group. (p. 536)
(normal distribution) a symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data; most scores fall near the mean (68 percent fall within one standard deviation of it) and fewer and fewer near the extremes. (pp. 40, 536)
the extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, or on retesting. (p. 538)
the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to. (See also content validity and predictive validity.) (p. 538)
the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest. (p. 538)
the success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict; it is assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior. (Also calledcriterion-related validity.) (p. 538)
(formerly referred to asmental retardation) a condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence score of 70 or below and difficulty in adapting to the demands of life; varies from mild to profound. (p. 542)
a condition of intellectual disability and associated physical disorders caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21. (p. 542)
a self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype. (p. 555)