What does a developmental psychologist study?
focus on human growth and changes across the lifespan, including physical, cognitive, social, intellectual, perceptual, personality and emotional growth.
??major concerns of developmental psychology
Continuity v. discontinuity
do we develop in stages or continuously
when cheek(s) is touched, the baby will turn towards the stimulus and with its mouth open, trying to get the stimulus in its mouth.
decreasing responsiveness to an unchanging stimulus; used to assess infant cognition
after a sequence of similar objects, measure how much interest infants show in a new object in line
Infantile amnesia—define and apply
Childhood amnesia, also called infantile amnesia, is the inability of adults to retrieve episodic memories before the age of 2–4 years, as well as the period before age 10 of which adults retain fewer memories than might otherwise be expected given the passage of time.
Interpreting one's new experience in terms of one's existing schemas.
Adapting one's current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information.
Erickson saw human development as a series of stages and identified 8 stages
a disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others’ states of mind.
Infant monkeys—attachment studies
Imprinting-define and apply
the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life.
What fosters fondness for certain people in children?-
repeated exposure or encounters
Do infants have well-defined periods for the formation of mother-infant attachment?
yes, after 4 months infants already have preferences for certain people, and can distingush between primary and secondary caregivers.
Fear of failure—who exhibits this and who does not?
those who experienced failure were predicted to exhibit more overgeneralization and greater relational concerns than those low in fear of failure.
Temperament and stability
Temperament refers to the characteristics and aspects of personality that we are born with
Stability- state of being stable
Self-concept and facial recognition
Self-concept, strictly defined, is the totality of our beliefs, preferences, opinions and attitudes organized in a systematic manner, towards our personal existence.
facial recognition- knows faces ????????????????????
Parent is warm, attentive and sensitive to child’s needs and interests, Parent makes reasonable demands for the child’s maturity level; explains/ enforces rules, Parent permits child to make decisions in accord with developmental readiness
Parent is cold and rejecting; frequently degrades the child, Parent is highly demanding; may use coercion by yelling commanding, criticizing and reliance on punishment, Parent makes most decisions for the child, rarely listens to child’s viewpoint
Parent is warm but may spoil the child, Parent makes few or no demands-often out of misplaced concern for child’s self esteem, Parent permits child to make decisions before the child is ready
Parent is emotionally detached, withdrawn and inattentive, Parent makes few of no demands-often lacking in interest or expectations for the child, Parent is indifferent to child’s decisions and point of view.
our sense of being male or female.
the period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing.
the "we" aspect of our self-concept; the part of our answer to "Who am I?" that comes from our group memberships.
According to Erickson, how do teens develop a sense of identity?
for some people in modern cultures, a period from the late teens to mid-twenties, bridging the gap between adolescent dependence and full independence and responsible adulthood.
Menarche-when does it occur?
the first menstrual period.
our accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age.
Adults and divorce-when most likely?
most occur in the 5th-10th years of marriage
Adults and suicide-when most likely?
The strongest risk factors for attempted suicide in adults are depression, alcohol abuse, cocaine use, and separation or divorce.
Social intuitionist theory-
social intuitionist model is that moral judgment is caused by quick moral intuitions and is followed (when needed) by slow, ex post facto moral reasoning.