hindsight bias

tendency to believe after learning an outcome that one would have forseen it

'i knew it all along'

critical thinking

thinking that doesn't blindly accept arguments and conclusions...

theory

an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events

hypothesis

a testable prediction often implied by a theory

operational definition

a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables.

i.e. a human intellignce may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures

replication

repeating the essence of a research study

usually with different participants in different situations to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances

case study

an observation techniqu in which one person is studied in depth in the hopes of revealing universal principles

survey

technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group

usually by questioning a rep., random sample of the group

population

all the cases in a group being studied

from which samples may be drawn

random sample

a sample that fairly represents a population b/c each member has an equal chance of inclusion

naturalistic observation

observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations w/out trying to manipulate and control the situation

correlation

measure of the extent to which 2 factors vary togthr, and thus of how wll either factor predicts the other

correlation coefficient

a statistical index of the relationship between two things

scatterplot

a graphed cluster of dots

each of which represents the values of 2 variables

the slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the 2 variables

the amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation

illusory correlation

perception of a relationship where none exists

experiment

research method in which an investigatory manipulates one+ factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process

random assignment

assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups

double-blind procedure

experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the resarch staff are ignorant about whether the research participants have received the treament or a placebo

drug-evalution

placebo effect

experimental results caused by expectations alone;

any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inhert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent

experimental group

the group exposed to the treament (independent variable)

control group

group that is not exposed to the treament

and contrasts with the experimental groups and servse as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment

independent variable

experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied

confounding variable

factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment

dependent variable

the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable

mode

most frequently occuring scores in a distribution

mean

average of a distribution

median

middle score in a distribution

range

diff. between highest and lowest scores in a distribution

standard deviation

computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score

normal curve

symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data

most scores fall near the mean

statistical significance

a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occured by chance

culture

enduring behaviors ideas and attitudes values and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next

informed consent

an ethical principle that research participants be told enough to enable thm to choose whether they wish to participate

debriefing

postexperimental explanation of a study, including its purpose and any deceptions, to its participants