foot in the door phenomenon
the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request.
Relative perception of intelligence levels among a child’s parents
children across the world think that their dads are smarter than their moms
group characteristics and memorability
eople tend to remember facial and individuals that are more like them
related to other race effect
recall of faces and race
you are more likely to recall faces of your own race than faces of other races (other-race effect)
social facilitation and tasks
you will have stronger responses on tasks when in the presence of others.
mere exposure effect
the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them.
Prolonged exposure to TV violence leads viewers to experience:
less sympathy for victims of violence and to become less upset by the sight of real life violenc
Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction—a strategy designed to decrease international tensions
an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior. They prescribe "proper" behavior.
Aggression- physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone.
the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint o
occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity
milgram obedience studies
Stanley Milgram, a psychologist at Yale University, conducted an experiment focusing on the conflict between obedience to authority and personal conscience.
Milgram (1963) wanted to investigate whether Germans were particularly obedient to authority figures as this was a common explanation for the Nazi killings in World War II.
The procedure was that the participant was paired with another person and they drew lots to find out who would be the ‘learner’ and who would be the ‘teacher’. ) was taken into a room and had electrodes attached to his arms, and the teacher and researcher went into a room next door that contained an electric shock generator and a row of switches marked from 15 volts
shared goals that overrode their differences and that could be achieved only through cooperation
other race effect
the tendency to recall faces of one's own race more accurately than faces of other races. Also called the cross-race effect and the own-race bias.
occurs when people within a group discuss an idea that most of them either favor or oppose.
Bystander Effect- The tendency for bystanders to give less aid when other bystanders are present.
“For more than half an hour 38 respectable, law-abiding citizens in Queens watched a killer stalk and stab a woman in three separate attacks in Kew Gardens. . . . Not one person telephoned the police during the assault; one witness called after the woman was dead.”
relationship between feelings and attitudes
attitude-feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events.
feelings- and emotional state
we are likely to make dispositional attributions when judging others
ex: we may blame the poor and unemployed for their misfortune
revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others.
stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others.
group projects at school/ presentations- students want to impress classmates
the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives.
environment and cultural diversity
Culture provides the shared and transmitted customs and beliefs that enable us to communicate, to exchange money for things, to play, to eat, and to drive with agreed-upon rules and without crashing into one another. This shared capacity for culture enables our striking group differences. Human nature manifests human diversity.
If we all lived in homogeneous ethnic groups in separate regions of the world, as some people still do, cultural diversity would be less relevant
social responsibility norm
an expectation that people will help those dependent upon them.
we should help those who need our help—young children and others who cannot give as much as they receive—even if the costs outweigh the benefits
a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior.
solomon asch experiments
performed famous studies on the nature of conformity, finding that, under certain conditions, people will conform to a groups judgement, even when its clearly incorrect
Asch found that 35% of real participants chose to give a wrong, yet conforming choice, even though they knew the answer was wrong
video games and aggression
studies has shown that violent video games can later lead to aggressive behavior.
playing violent video games can be a release of aggression for some
modeling - apply
a form of learning where individuals ascertain how to act or perform by observing another individual
example- when you don’t know anyone at a party, but after observing people you start acting like them. (when in Rome)
aggression → Parents can model aggression by yelling and beating→ learned aggression
TV and movies are ridiculously aggressive and violent. → Enacting violence in video games or viewing it in the media can desensitize people to cruelty and prime them to behave aggressively when provoked, or to view sexual aggression as more acceptable.
social exchange theory
the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs.
central route persuasion
attitude change path in which interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts.
occurs mostly when people are naturally analytical or involved in the issue
the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. For example, when our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes
when we become aware that our attitudes and actions don’t coincide, we experience tension,or cognitive dissonance. To relieve this tension, according to the cognitive dissonance theory proposed by Leon Festinger, we often bring our attitudes into line with our actions.
you motivation comes from conscious satisfaction.
For example, it is the knowledge that you did something right, or you helped someone and made their day better