Chapter 11 reverse Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 11 reverse Deck (50):
1


Closed system of the heart and blood vessels

Heart pumps blood

Bolld vessels allow blood to circulate to all parts of the body


Cardiovascular System

2


transport O2, nutrients, hormones, etc

temperature regulation

protection: immunity and hemostasis


Functions of the Cardiovascular system

3


locatoin: thorax between the lungs in the inferior mediastium

orientation: pointed apex directed toward the left hip

base points toward right shoulder

about size of fist


Heart

4


Pericardium:  double walled sac

fibrous pericardium is loose and superficial

Serous membrane: deep to the fibrous pericardium and composed of 2 layers


Heart coverings

5


Visceral pericardium:  surface of the heart

Parietal pericardium: outside layer that lines the inner surface of the fibrous pericardium

Selrous fluid: fills space between the layers of pericardium


Serous Membrane

6


3 layers

epicardium

myocardium

endocardium


Heart wall

7


visceral pericardium

outside layer superficial


Epicardium

8


middle layer

mostly cardiac muscle


myocardium

9


endothelium

inner layer: deep


endocardium

10


4 chambers

right and left act as separate pumps

Atria: top

Ventricles: Bottom


Heart Chambers

11


Left and right

upper chambers

receiving chambers


Atria

12


right and left

lower chambers

pumps


Ventricles

13


muscle that separates the two ventricles


Interventricular septum

14


muscle wall that separates the two Atria


interatrial septum

15


allow blood to flow in only one direction: prevent backflow

Atrioventricular Valves (AV)

Semilunar valves


Heart valves

16


Tricuspid valves between RA and RV

Bicuspid (mitral) valve: between LA and LV

 


Atrioventricular Valves

17


Pulmonary semilunar valve: between RV and pulmonary trunk

aortic valve: between LV and aorta


Semilunar valves

18

Systemic Circuit

Pulmonary Circuit


Blood flow through body

19


blood flows from the LV through body and back to the RA


Systemic Circuit

20


blood flows from the RV to the lungs and back to the LA


PUlmonary Circuit

21


Arteries:

aorta: Leaves LV

pulmonary trunk: leaves RV

Veins:

Superior and inferior venae cavae: enter RA

pulmonary veins (4): enter LA


Associated Great vessels

22


blood in heart chambers does not nourish the myocardium

Coronary arteries

Coronary Veins


Coronary Circulation

23


branch from aorta

supply heart muscle with O2 rich blood


Coronary Arteries

24


drain the myocardium of blood

coronary sinus: large vein on the posterior of the heart, receives blood from cardiac veins

blood empties into the RA


Coronary Veins

25


Transport blood to tissues and back

Arteries

Veins


Blood Vessels

26


Carry O2 rich blood away from the heart


Arteries

arterioles

27


exchange between tissues and blood


Capillary beds

28


return O2 poor blood to heart


Veins

Venules

29


3 layers

Tunic Intima

Tunic Media

Tunic Externa


Blood vessel anatomy

30


endothelium


Tunic intima

31


smooth muscle

controlled by sympathetic nervous tissue


Tunic media

32


mostly fibrous connective tissue


Tunic Externa

33


Artery walls are thickest

lumens of veins are larger

larger veins have valves to prevent backflow


Blood vessel differences

34


smallest vessels

simple squamous epithelium:

one layer thick

permits diffusion, osmosis and filtration

exchange vessels: site of O2, CO2, water, nutrient and waste exchange

aranged in beds: density reflects metabolic rate


Capillaries

35


largest artery in the body

leaves the LV of the heart

 


Aorta

36


Ascending aorta leaves LV

aortic arch: arches to the left

Thoracic aorta: travels downward through thorax

Abdominal aorta: passes through the diaphragm into the abdominopelvic cavity


Regions of Aorta

37


right and left coronary arteries serve the heart

 


arterial branches of ascending aorta

38


Brachiocephalic trunk

left common carotid artery

left subclavin artery


Branches of the aortic arch

39


Common carotid

internal carotid arteries: to brain

external carotid arteries:

to face and scalp

Vertebral artery: to brain


arteries of neck, head and brain

40


subclavin artery

axillary artery

Bracial artery

radial and ulnar arteries


Arteries of shoulder and upper limb

41


renal arteries to kidneys


Abdominal aorta

42


common iliac arteris: inferior branch of abdonimal aorta

internal iliac: to pelvic cavity

external iliac: to lower limb

Femoral artery


arteris of pelvis and lower limbs

43


Superior and inferior Vena Cava

enter RA of heart


Major Veins

44


drains the head and upper limbs


Superior Vena Cava

45


drains the lower body


inferior vena cava

46


External jugular: face and scalp

Internal jugular (largest jugular): Brain, deep veins of face and neck

brachiocephalic veins to SVC


Veins of brain head and neck

47


Radial and Ulnar veins

brachial vein

axillary vein

subclavin vein into the brachiocephalic vein


Veins of shoulder and upper limbs

48

renal vein from kidneys

hepatic veins from liver

hepatic portal system


Veins from Abdominal viscera

49


blood from stomach, small intestines, and large intestines flows to liver via hepatic portal vein, not directly to the inferior vena cava


hepatic portal system

50


femoral vein

external iliac vein

internal iliac vein

common iliac vein

inferior vena cava


veins from pelvis and lower limbs