Chapter 16 reproductive reverse Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 16 reproductive reverse Deck (70):
1

sperm production

secrete testosterone


Male Reproductive system functions

2


testes


Male reproductive primary organs

3


epididymis

vas deferens

ejaculatory duct

urethra


Male reproductive duct system

4

seminal vesichles

prostate

bulbourethral gland


Male reproductive accessory organs

5


scrotum

penis


Male external genitalia

6


capsule that surrounds each testis


Tunica albuginea

7


testes lobule containing tightly coiled seminiferous tubules


site of sperm production

8


support and nourish sperm

regulate sperm production


sertoli cells

9


produce sperm


Spermatogonia

10


between seminiferous tubules

produce androgens such as testosterone


interstitial cells

11


6 meters of coiled tube: found in the superior part of the testis and slong the posterior lateral side

site of sperm maturation and storage

concentration of muscles in the wall of the epididymis expels sperm with the vas deferens

 


Epididymis

12


carries sperm from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct


Vas Deferens

Ductus Deferens

13


smooth muscle in the walls of the vas deferens create peristaltic waves to squeeze the sperm forward


ejaculation

14


cutting the vas deferens at the level of the testes to prevent the transportation of sperm


vasectomy

15


short duct that connects the vas deferens to the urethra

within the prostate gland


Ejaculatory duct

16


extends from the base of the urinary bladder to the tip of the penis

carries urine and sperm

sperm enters from the ejaculatory duct


urethra

17


located posterior to the urinary bladder

secretes alkaline fluid into ejaculatory ducts:

fructose-energy for sperm

60% of final semen volume


seminal vesicles

18


inferior to urinary bladder

secretes alkaline fluid:

helps activate sperm

enters the urethra through several small ducts


prostate gland

19


pea sized glands inferior to the prostate

produce a thick clear mucus

cleanses the urethra of acidic urine

serves as lubricant during sex

secreted into the penile urethra


bulbourethral glands

20


mixture of sperm and accessory gland secretions:

alkaline pH:  7.2-7.6  (neutralizes vaginal secretions)

volume 2-5ml

average sperm count: 120 million per ml

 


semen

21


non mobile with the male reproductive system

begin to swim in an alkaline environment


sperm

22


changes that allow sperm to fertilize egg

occurs within the female reproductive tract


capacitation

23


divided pouch of skin posterior to the penis

maintains the testes about 3 deg C lower than body temp to protect sperm


scrotum

24


delivers sperm into the female reproductive tract

 


penis

25


shaft

glans penis (enlarged tip)

prepuce (foreskin): folded cuff or skin around proximal end

often removed by circumcision

internally 3 areas of spongy erectile tissue

erections occur when erectile tissue fills with blood during sexual excitement


regions of the penis

26


production of sperm cells

entire process takes 64-72 days


spermatogenesis

27


meiotic cell division

begins at puberty and continues throughout life

occurs in the seminiferous tubules


production of sperm cells

28


spermatogonium

primary spermatocyte 46 chromosomes

2 secondary spermatocytes 23 chromosomes

4 spermatids 23 chromosomes

4 sperm cells 23 chromosomes


spermatogenesis cycle

29


4 sperm cells containing 23 chromosomes

sperms cells are not genetically identical


spermatogenesis final product

30

Head contaiing nuclueus of 23 chromosomes and acrosomal cap

midpiece: fliaments and mitochondria

Tail: flagellum


Structure of mature sperm

31


contains enzymes that help penetrate egg during fertilization


acrosomal cap

32


production of ova

secretion of estrogen and progesterone

provide an environment for developing offspring

parturition


Female reproductive functions

33


ovaries


Female primary reproductive organs

34


uterine tubes

uterus

vagina


female reproductive duct system

35


vulva


female external genitalia

36


ovoid structures found with pelvic cavitiy

composed of ovarian follicles

 

 


ovaries

37


each consists of Oocyte (immature egg)

follicular cells-surround the Oocyte


ovarian follicles

38


receive the ovulated oocyte

site of fertilization upper 1/3 of tube

lined with simple ciliated columnar epithelium

helps move oocyte toward uterus


uternine tubes

"fallopian"

39


holloow muscular organ

located between the urinary bladder and rectum

endometrium inner most layer

cervix projects into the vagina

protects fetus during pregnancy


uterus

40


fibromuscular tube

extends from cervix to exterior of body

serves as birth canal

receives penis during intercourse

hymen


vagina

41


membrane that partially covers the vaginal orifice


hymen

42


mons pubis

labia majora

labia minora

Vulva

43


fatty area overlying the pubic symphysis

covered with pubi hair after puberty


mons pubis

44


encloses and protects the other external reprosuctive organs


labia majora

45


longitudinal folds between labia majora

converge anteriorly to form hood of clitoris


labia minora

46


enclosed by labia majora

contains external openings of the urethra and vagina


Vestibule

47


found on each side of the vagina

secrets lubricant during intercourse


greater vestibular glands

48


contains erectile tissue richly supplied with sensory fibers

corresponds to the male penis

 


clitoris

49


hooded by prepuce

composed of erectile tissue

becomes swollen with blood during sexual intercourse


similarities between clitoris and penis

50


Ovarian cycle

Uterine cycle


female reproductive cycle components

51


maturation of follicle days 1-13

Oogenesis: formation of egg days 1-14

ovulation day 14

formation of corpus luteum days 14-28


Ovarian cycle

52


changes in endometrium

controlled by ovarian hormones


Uterine cycle

53


maturation of follicel days 1-13

Oogenesis: egg formation day 1-14

Ovulation day 14

formation of corpus luteum days 14-28


ovarian cycle 28 day overview

54

oocyte surrounded by follicular cells

6-7 million form during fetal development

at birth 2 million, at puberty 400k

400 ova are released during reproductive years


primordial follicles

55


primary follicle: single layer of cells surrounding oocyte (day 1)

secondary follicle (day 13)  antrum, zonapellicida, corona radiata

mature follicle

corpus luteum (day 15-28)


Follicular maturation

56


total suppply of eggs present at birth

ability to release eggs begins at puberty

reproductive ability ends at menopause


Oogenesis

57


occurs in developing ovarian follicles


oocyte maturation

58


primary oocyte 46 chromosomes

secondary oocyte+polar body 23 chromosomes

secondary oocyte begins meiosis II

arrests in metaphase II

egg cell that is ovulated (day 14)


oogenesis cycle

59


release of secondary oocyte from the surface of the ovary

secondary oocyte is surrounded by zona pellucid and corona radiata

oocyte is ovulated into pelvic cavity


ovulation

60


meiosis I Iis completed

mature ova + second polar body are formed

zygote forms when nucleus of egg and sperm merge

if it does not occur egg will degenerate within 12-24 hrs


fertilization

61


one ova+2-3 polar bodies


oogenesis final product

62


menstruation days 1-5

proliferation phase days 3-14

secretory phase days 15-28


uterine cycle 28 day overview

63


period of mentrual bleeding


menstruation

64


endometrium repairs and grows


proliferation phase

65


endometrium increases in size and readies for implantation


secretory phase

66


estrogen

luteinizing hormone

estrogen and progesterone


hormone control of female reproduction

67


secreted by foliicular cells during first 14 days of ovarian cycle

stimulates growth of endometrium


estrogen

68


secreted by pituitary gland

levels surge around day 13 causing ovulation


luteinizing hormone

69


secreted by luteum during last 14 days of ovarian cycle

stimulate growth and activity of uterine glands within endometrium


estrogen and progesterone

70


oocyte is viable for 12-24 hrs after release

sperm are viable for 24048 hrs after ejaculation

sexual intercourse must occur no more than 2 days before ovulation and no later than 24 hrs after

sperm cells must make their way to the uterine tube for fertilization to be possible


Egg fertilization