Chapter 16 Reproductive Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 16 Reproductive Deck (70):
1


Male Reproductive system functions

sperm production

secrete testosterone

2


Male reproductive primary organs


testes

3


Male reproductive duct system


epididymis

vas deferens

ejaculatory duct

urethra

4


Male reproductive accessory organs

seminal vesichles

prostate

bulbourethral gland

5


Male external genitalia


scrotum

penis

6


Tunica albuginea


capsule that surrounds each testis

7


site of sperm production


testes lobule containing tightly coiled seminiferous tubules

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sertoli cells


support and nourish sperm

regulate sperm production

9


Spermatogonia


produce sperm

10


interstitial cells


between seminiferous tubules

produce androgens such as testosterone

11


Epididymis


6 meters of coiled tube: found in the superior part of the testis and slong the posterior lateral side

site of sperm maturation and storage

concentration of muscles in the wall of the epididymis expels sperm with the vas deferens

 

12


Vas Deferens

Ductus Deferens


carries sperm from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct

13


ejaculation


smooth muscle in the walls of the vas deferens create peristaltic waves to squeeze the sperm forward

14


vasectomy


cutting the vas deferens at the level of the testes to prevent the transportation of sperm

15


Ejaculatory duct


short duct that connects the vas deferens to the urethra

within the prostate gland

16


urethra


extends from the base of the urinary bladder to the tip of the penis

carries urine and sperm

sperm enters from the ejaculatory duct

17


seminal vesicles


located posterior to the urinary bladder

secretes alkaline fluid into ejaculatory ducts:

fructose-energy for sperm

60% of final semen volume

18


prostate gland


inferior to urinary bladder

secretes alkaline fluid:

helps activate sperm

enters the urethra through several small ducts

19


bulbourethral glands

20


semen


mixture of sperm and accessory gland secretions:

alkaline pH:  7.2-7.6  (neutralizes vaginal secretions)

volume 2-5ml

average sperm count: 120 million per ml

 

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sperm


non mobile with the male reproductive system

begin to swim in an alkaline environment

22


capacitation


changes that allow sperm to fertilize egg

occurs within the female reproductive tract

23


scrotum


divided pouch of skin posterior to the penis

maintains the testes about 3 deg C lower than body temp to protect sperm

24


penis


delivers sperm into the female reproductive tract

 

25


regions of the penis


shaft

glans penis (enlarged tip)

prepuce (foreskin): folded cuff or skin around proximal end

often removed by circumcision

internally 3 areas of spongy erectile tissue

erections occur when erectile tissue fills with blood during sexual excitement

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spermatogenesis


production of sperm cells

entire process takes 64-72 days

27


production of sperm cells


meiotic cell division

begins at puberty and continues throughout life

occurs in the seminiferous tubules

28


spermatogenesis cycle

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spermatogenesis final product


4 sperm cells containing 23 chromosomes

sperms cells are not genetically identical

30


Structure of mature sperm

Head contaiing nuclueus of 23 chromosomes and acrosomal cap

midpiece: fliaments and mitochondria

Tail: flagellum

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acrosomal cap

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Female reproductive functions

33


Female primary reproductive organs


ovaries

34


female reproductive duct system


uterine tubes

uterus

vagina

35


female external genitalia


vulva

36


ovaries

37


ovarian follicles


each consists of Oocyte (immature egg)

follicular cells-surround the Oocyte

38


uternine tubes

"fallopian"


receive the ovulated oocyte

site of fertilization upper 1/3 of tube

lined with simple ciliated columnar epithelium

helps move oocyte toward uterus

39


uterus


holloow muscular organ

located between the urinary bladder and rectum

endometrium inner most layer

cervix projects into the vagina

protects fetus during pregnancy

40


vagina


fibromuscular tube

extends from cervix to exterior of body

serves as birth canal

receives penis during intercourse

hymen

41


hymen


membrane that partially covers the vaginal orifice

42

Vulva


mons pubis

labia majora

labia minora

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mons pubis


fatty area overlying the pubic symphysis

covered with pubi hair after puberty

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labia majora


encloses and protects the other external reprosuctive organs

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labia minora


longitudinal folds between labia majora

converge anteriorly to form hood of clitoris

46


Vestibule


enclosed by labia majora

contains external openings of the urethra and vagina

47


greater vestibular glands


found on each side of the vagina

secrets lubricant during intercourse

48


clitoris


contains erectile tissue richly supplied with sensory fibers

corresponds to the male penis

 

49


similarities between clitoris and penis


hooded by prepuce

composed of erectile tissue

becomes swollen with blood during sexual intercourse

50


female reproductive cycle components


Ovarian cycle

Uterine cycle

51


Ovarian cycle

52


Uternie cycle


changes in endometrium

controlled by ovarian hormones

53


ovarian cycle 28 day overview


maturation of follicel days 1-13

Oogenesis: egg formation day 1-14

Ovulation day 14

formation of corpus luteum days 14-28

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primordial follicles

55


Follicular maturation

56


Oogenesis


total suppply of eggs present at birth

ability to release eggs begins at puberty

reproductive ability ends at menopause

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oocyte maturation


occurs in developing ovarian follicles

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oogenesis cycle

59


ovulation


release of secondary oocyte from the surface of the ovary

secondary oocyte is surrounded by zona pellucid and corona radiata

oocyte is ovulated into pelvic cavity

60


fertilization

61


oogenesis final product


one ova+2-3 polar bodies

62


uterine cycle 28 day overview


menstruation days 1-5

proliferation phase days 3-14

secretory phase days 15-28

63


menstruation


period of mentrual bleeding

64


proliferation phase


endometrium repairs and grows

65


secretory phase


endometrium increases in size and readies for implantation

66


hormone control of female reproduction


estrogen

luteinizing hormone

estrogen and progesterone

67


estrogen


secreted by foliicular cells during first 14 days of ovarian cycle

stimulates growth of endometrium

68


luteinizing hormone


secreted by pituitary gland

levels surge around day 13 causing ovulation

69


estrogen and progesterone


secreted by luteum during last 14 days of ovarian cycle

stimulate growth and activity of uterine glands within endometrium

70


Egg fertilization


oocyte is viable for 12-24 hrs after release

sperm are viable for 24048 hrs after ejaculation

sexual intercourse must occur no more than 2 days before ovulation and no later than 24 hrs after

sperm cells must make their way to the uterine tube for fertilization to be possible