Chapter 5 Skeletal System Reverse Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5 Skeletal System Reverse Deck (99):
1

bones

joints

cartilages

ligaments

Skeletal system

2

Axial skeleton

appendicular skeleton

skeletal subdivisions

3

206

bone in an adult

4

support the body protect soft organs allow movement due to attached muscle store minerals and fats blood cell formation

function of bones

5

compact bone outside osteon spongy bone-inside

bone tissue

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Long bones

short bones

flat bones

irregular bones

classification of bone shape

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typically longer than wide expanded end femur, humerus

long bones

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generally cube shaped carpals and tarsals

short bones

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thin flattened and usually curved skull, ribs and sternum

flat bones

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irregular shape do not fit other classification categories vertebrae, hip bones

irregular bones

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Diaphysis

epiphysis

periosteum

perforating fibers

articular cartilage

epiphyseal plate e

piphyseal line

medujllary cavity

long bone structure

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shaft wall thick layer of compact bone covering spngy bone

diaphysis

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expanded joints forms joints spngy bone covered by compact bone

epiphysis

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outside covering of the diaphysis blood vessels just underneath fibrous connective tissue membrane

periosteum

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secure periosteum to the underlying bone

perforating fibers

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covers external surface of epiphysis located on articulated surface made of hyaline cartilage decreases friction at joint surfaces

articular cartilage

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flat plate of hyaline cartilage seen in young growing bone

epipyseal plate

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remnant of epiphyseal plate seen in adult bones

epiphyseal line

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cavity inside diaphysis lined by endosteum contains yellow marrow in adults contains red marrow in infants highly vascular

medullary cavity

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osteon central canal lamellae lacunae nutrient foramen perforating canal canaliculi

microscopic anatomy of bone

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funtional unit of compact bone containing central canal and matrix rings

osteon

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opening in the center of an osteon carries blood vessels and nerves

central canal

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rings around the central canal

lamellae

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cavities containing osteocytes between lamellae

lacunae

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on surface of bone where blood vessels enter and leave

nutrient foramen

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canal perpendicular to the central canal carries blood vessels and nerves

perforating canal

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tiny canals radiate from central canal to lacunae form transparent system connecting all bone cells to nutrient supply

canaliculi

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ossification intramembranous ossification endochondral ossification bone growth appositional growth

Bone formation

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bone formation calicification of bone

ossification

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begins as fibrous sheet produces flat bones

intramembranous ossification

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bone develops from hyaline cartilage model six weeks fetal development to early 20s most bones develop this way

endochondral ossification

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epiphyseal plates allow for longitudinal growth of long bones during childhood new cartilage is continuously formed older cartilage becomes ossified epiphyseal plate ossifys then growth stops

bone growth

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process by which bones grow in diameter

appositional growth

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process of reabsorption and depostion that occurs throughout life 3-5percent annually

bone remodeling

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blood calcium level pull of gravity and muscles on the skeleton

remodeling factors

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osteoclasts secure substances that break down calcified extracellular matrix Acids dissolve inorganic components Lysosomal enzymes digest organic components Osteoblasts secrete new bone

cells involved in remodeling

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osteocyte mature bone cells osteoblast bone forming cells osteoclasts bone destroying cells

types of bone cells

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forms longitudinal axis of the body support head neck and trunk 3 parts

Axial skeleton

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Skull and hyoid vertebral column ribs and sternum

parts of axial skeleton

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two sets of bones cranial and facial bones are joined by sutures only mandible is attached f=reely moving

Skull

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maxilla palatine

bones of hard palate

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ethmoid vomer

bones of nasal septum

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hollow portions of bones surrounding the nasal cavity frontal maxillary ethmoid sphenoid

paranasal sinuses

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lighten the skull give resonance and amplification to voice

functions of paranasal sinuses

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only bone that does not articulate with any other bone serves as a movable base for tongue aids is swallowing and speech

hyoid bone

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large compared to infants body frontanels fibrous membranes connecting the cranial bones allow bone to grow convert to bone within 24 months

fetal skull

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24 bones separated by discs 7 cervical 12 thoracic 5 lumbar 5 sacrum fused 4 coccyx fused

vertebral column

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primary are spinacurvatures of the thoracic and sacralsecondary are spinal curvatures of cervical and lumbar

spine curvature

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present from birth convex posteriorly

primary spinal curve

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develope after birth convex anteriorly

secondary spinal curve

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scoliosis abnormal lateral curve kyphosis exaggerated thoracic curve lordosis abnormal anterior convexity of lumbar

spinal curvature disorders

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body anterior weight bearing portion foramen canal which spinal cord passes spinous process

Vertebrae

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Atlas C1 Axis C2 transverse foramen 2 holes spinous points down

cervical vertebrae

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long pointed spinous process large body horseshoe shaped articulate with ribs giraffe

thoracic vertebrae

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large rounder bodies supports body weight no facet for rib lumbering moose

lumbar vertebrae

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formed by fusion of 5 vertebrae

sacrum

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formed by fusion of 4 vertebrae tailbone

coccyx

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child 33 adult 26

total number of vertebrae

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forms a cage to protect major organs sternum ribs thoracic vertebrae

bony thorax

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true ribs 1-7 false ribs 8-12 floating ribs 11-12

ribs

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126 bones limbs pectoral girdle pelvic girdle

appendicular skeleton

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clavicle collarbone scapula shoulder blade

pectoral girdle shoulder

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elongated s shaped bones forms joint with sternum only joint that attaches upper limb to axial skeleton

clavicle

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flat triangular bone articulates with clavicle and humerus

scapula

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humerus brachium extends from scapula to elbow antebrachium 2 bones ulna medial bone radius lateral bone

bones of upper limbs

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8 carpals wrist bones 5 metacarpals palm 14 phalanges fingers

Manus hand

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2 coxal bones ossa coxae composed of 3 fused bones illium ischium pubis protects several organs, reproductive, urinary and part of large intestine

Pelvic girdle

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Femur heaviest and strongest in body crural region 2 bones tibia shinbone larger and medial fibula lateral to tibia thins and sticklike, non weight bearing

Lower limbs

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7 tarsals largest talus calcaneus heelbone 5 metatarsals top 14 phalanges toes

Foot bones

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articulation holds bones together allows for mobility

joint

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functionally structurally

joint classifications

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synarthoses immovable joints amphiarthoses slightly movable joints diarthoses freely movable joints

Funtional joints

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fibrous joints cartilaginous joints synovial joints

structural joints

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generally immovable articulating bones held together by fibrous tissue no joint cavity

fibrous jointts

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immovable or slightly movable bones connected by cartilage no cavity

cartilaginous joint

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freely movable joint articulating bones separated by cavity most complex most joints in body

synovial joint

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hyaline cartilage covers ends of bones fibrous capsule encloses joint surface dense connective tissue joint cavity is fill with synovial fluid lubricates articulating surfaces

synovial joint features

78

structures associated with synovial joint

ligaments

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flattened fibrous sac filled with synovial fluid not part of joint reduces friction between muscles and bone, tendon and bone

bursae

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elongated bursa that wraps around a tendon

tendon sheath

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fibro cartilage pads shock absorbers limit lateral movement

menisci of knee

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cruciate ligaments limit anterior-posterior movement of knee ligamentum capitus of hip

ligaments

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plane joint hinge joint pivot joint condyloid joint saddle joint ball and socket joint

types of synovial joints

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articulating surfaces nearly flat between carpal and tarsal bones

Plane joint

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convex surface fits into a concave surface elbow, knee interphalangeal

hinge joint

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cylyndrical surface rotates with a ring of bone atlas and axis vertebrae proximal radius and ulna

pivot joint

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ovoid condyloe fitting into and elliptical cavity between metacarpal and phalanges

condyloid joint

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articulating surfaces have both concave and convex areas carpal bones and 1st metacarpal

saddle joint

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bone with globular or egg shaped head articulating with the cup cavity of another bone hip and shoulder

ball and socket joint

90


1

Osteon

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2

Lamellae

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3

Collagen Fiber

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4

periosteum

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5

spongy bone

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6

perforating canal

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7

central canal

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8

lacuna

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9

osteocyte

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10

canaliculi