Chapter 11 - The Nutritional Connection Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 11 - The Nutritional Connection Deck (94)
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1

true or false: one should assume that a healthy diet needs to be fat free, low sugar and high fibre all the time

FALSE: don't assume that a healthy diet needs to be fat free, low sugar and high fibre all the time

2

what 3 things should be considered when making food choices?

- variety
- balance
- moderation

3

what are the 2 roles of the digestive system?

1) to produce energy from food ingested
2) to transfer energy rich nutrients, water and electrolytes into your body's internal environment

4

the __________ forms a continuous route from mouth to anus

digestive tract

5

the contents of the digestive tract are actually part of the external environment until absorbed through the _________

intestinal wall

6

what is the order of the digestive tract? (list 8)

- mouth
- pharynx
- esophagus
- stomach
- small intestine
- large intestine (colon)
- rectum
- anus

7

what are the 4 glandular organs in the digestive system?

- salivary glands
- liver
- gall bladder
- pancreas

8

what does the digestive system aim to do?

absorb maximally

9

waste material excreted via the gastrointestinal tract is called ________

feces

10

feces consists mainly of _______ and ______ (including fibre)

bacteria and undigested material

11

nutrition

the science of food and how the body uses it in health and disease

12

list 6 essential nutrients

1) proteins
2) fats
3) carbohydrates
4) vitamins
5) minerals
6) water

13

in the context of nutrition, what does essential refer to?

nutrients that the body is unable to manufacture without

14

what are 2 reasons essential nutrients are needed?

1) necessary for energy
2) needed for the building and maintenance of tissues

15

what are essential nutrients relied upon for?

the regulation of body functions

16

what are the 3 nutrients that provide the body with energy?

1) proteins
2) fats
3) carbohydrates

17

energy is expressed in ______

kilocalories

18

1 kilocalorie = ____ calories

1000

19

what is the difference between calories and Calories

when there is a capital "C" it refers to kilocalorie

20

_________ = heat required to raise the temperature of 1kg of water 1 degree celcius

1 kilocalorie

21

an average person requires approximately ______ kilocalories per day

2000

22

what is the calorie density of fats?

9 Cal/g

23

what is the calorie density of alcohol?

7 Cal/g

24

what is the calorie density of carbohydrates?

4 Cal/g

25

what is the calorie density of proteins?

4 Cal/g

26

_______ are found in every living cell

proteins

27

proteins act as structural components for what 6 places?

1) muscles
2) bones
3) blood
4) enzymes
5) some hormones
6) cell membranes

28

proteins are composed of chains of ________

amino acids

29

there are ____ commonly recognized amino acids

20

30

list the 9 essential (cannot be synthesized) amino acids

1) histidine
2) isoleucine
3) leucine
4) lysine
5) methionine
6) phenylalanine
7) Threonine
8) Tryptophan
9) Valine