Flashcards in Chapter 11 - The Nutritional Connection Deck (94):
true or false: one should assume that a healthy diet needs to be fat free, low sugar and high fibre all the time
FALSE: don't assume that a healthy diet needs to be fat free, low sugar and high fibre all the time
what 3 things should be considered when making food choices?
what are the 2 roles of the digestive system?
1) to produce energy from food ingested
2) to transfer energy rich nutrients, water and electrolytes into your body's internal environment
the __________ forms a continuous route from mouth to anus
the contents of the digestive tract are actually part of the external environment until absorbed through the _________
what is the order of the digestive tract? (list 8)
- small intestine
- large intestine (colon)
what are the 4 glandular organs in the digestive system?
- salivary glands
- gall bladder
what does the digestive system aim to do?
waste material excreted via the gastrointestinal tract is called ________
feces consists mainly of _______ and ______ (including fibre)
bacteria and undigested material
the science of food and how the body uses it in health and disease
list 6 essential nutrients
in the context of nutrition, what does essential refer to?
nutrients that the body is unable to manufacture without
what are 2 reasons essential nutrients are needed?
1) necessary for energy
2) needed for the building and maintenance of tissues
what are essential nutrients relied upon for?
the regulation of body functions
what are the 3 nutrients that provide the body with energy?
energy is expressed in ______
1 kilocalorie = ____ calories
what is the difference between calories and Calories
when there is a capital "C" it refers to kilocalorie
_________ = heat required to raise the temperature of 1kg of water 1 degree celcius
an average person requires approximately ______ kilocalories per day
what is the calorie density of fats?
what is the calorie density of alcohol?
what is the calorie density of carbohydrates?
what is the calorie density of proteins?
_______ are found in every living cell
proteins act as structural components for what 6 places?
5) some hormones
6) cell membranes
proteins are composed of chains of ________
there are ____ commonly recognized amino acids
list the 9 essential (cannot be synthesized) amino acids
how are individual sources of protein considered complete?
if they supply all nine essential amino acids
complete protein sources include what?
animal products such as meat, cheese, fish, eggs, poultry and milk
incomplete protein sources include
plant sources such as grains, beans, peas and nuts
true or false: plant-based incomplete protein sources are still good sources of amino acids
how can someone turn an incomplete protein source into a complete?
by combining it with other incomplete protein sources to get all 9 essential amino acids
protein should comprise of __ - __% of total caloric intake
what is excess protein stored as?
inadequate protein consumption can lead to what?
fats are also known as _____
fat should be about __ - __% of total calories
_____ is a concentrated source of energy
what are 5 things fat serves to do?
1) provide a source of energy
2) insulate the body
3) cushion organs
4) aid the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins
5) add flavour and texture to foods
________ fats are solid at room temperature
what kind of fat is found predominantly in animal products?
saturated fats has been linked to ________ disease and should not exceed __% of total fat intake
linked to cardiovascular disease and should not exceed 7% of total fat intake
__________ and ________ fats usually come from plant sources
monounsaturated and polyunsaturated
_________ fat is liquid at room temperature (oil)
what kind of fat is more desirable?
unsaturated fats appear to be lower in ___________ than saturated fats
unsaturated fats are shown to reduce the risk of ______ disease
processed plant oils can be high in _______ fats
tropical oils( such as palm oil and coconut oil) used in processed foods are high in ________ fats
hydrogenated fats and oils are created from ________ fats and are used to prevent spoiling and to add texture
true or false: elevated intake of saturated fats may increase blood cholesterol levels
_______ produces trans fatty acids that may increase blood cholesterol
increased blood cholesterol and trigylceride levels have been implicated with the development of _______ disease
what is the primary source of energy?
carbohydrates should be __ - __% of daily calories
what are the 3 groups of carbohydrates? what are they based on?
the 3 groups of carbohydrates are: monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides and are based on the number of saccharides
_________ and _________ are considered sugars
monosaccharides and disaccharides
_________ are considered starches
Liver and muscles use glucose for carbohydrate storage in the form of _____
carbohydrates consumed in excess of storage capacity as glycogen are stored as ______
what do vitamins serve as?
coenzymes in chemical reactions
why are vitamins 'organic?'
because they contain carbon atoms
true or false: vitamins are required in large amounts
FALSE: vitamins are required in small amounts
vitamins are necessary for what 3 things?
3) health maintenance
what are the 2 classifications of vitamins? what are they based on?
1) water-soluble vitamins
2) fat-soluble vitamins
-based on their ability to dissolve in either water or fat tissue
what classification of vitamins are not stored and excess amounts are eliminated in the urine?
__________ vitamins include vitamin C and B- complex vitamins
fat-soluble vitamins include vitamins, __.__.__ and __
A, D, E and K
when taken in excess, fat-soluble vitamins are stored in ______
what can over consumption of fat soluble vitamins result in?
toxicity (especially in vitamins A and D)
why are minerals considered 'inorganic?'
because they do not contain carbon atoms
what 4 things are minerals necessary for?
1) structural elements (teeth, hormones and muscles)
2) regulation of body functions (muscle contractions, blood clotting, heart function)
3) aid in the growth and maintenance of body tissues
4) catalytic action in energy release
list 6 reasons why water is important
1) nutrient transport
2) waste transport
3) digestion and absorption
4) regulation of body temperature
6) chemical reactions
what are 4 ways body water is lost?
4) evaporation in lungs
excessive water loss happens for what 4 reasons?
3) hot environment
4) consumption of coffee, tea, alcohol
we need to consume approx. __mL of water for every calorie burned
1mL of water
______ and ______ can be signs of dehydration
weakness and fatigue
fibre includes what?
plant substances that cannot be digested by the body
what does fibre add to feces? why?
bulk to facilitate elimination
what can a large intake of fibre lead to?
what are 4 rich sources of fibre?
what are 4 other sources of fibre?
4) whole grain foods
true or false: We should enjoy a variety of foods
what 5 products should be emphasized?
cereals, breads, other grain products, vegetables and fruits
true or false: we should eat tons of salt, alcohol and caffeine
FALSE: limit salt, alcohol and caffeine
what are the 5 food groups?
1) vegetables and fruits
2) grain products
3) milk products
4) meat and alternatives
5) other foods (such as junk food)
what is the rainbow design of the food guide?
a visual representation of the relative amounts of each food group recommended
what does the amount of food needed each day from the food groups vary according to? (list 6)
2) body size
4) activity level
5) if you are pregnant
6) if you are breast feeding
true or false: every once in a while it is okay to eat fast food
true or false: even if we are eating the right foods, it is recommended to take vitamin and mineral supplements
FALSE: if you're eating the right foods, than you should be getting all vitamins and minerals in that