Chapter 11 - The Nutritional Connection Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 11 - The Nutritional Connection Deck (94):
1

true or false: one should assume that a healthy diet needs to be fat free, low sugar and high fibre all the time

FALSE: don't assume that a healthy diet needs to be fat free, low sugar and high fibre all the time

2

what 3 things should be considered when making food choices?

- variety
- balance
- moderation

3

what are the 2 roles of the digestive system?

1) to produce energy from food ingested
2) to transfer energy rich nutrients, water and electrolytes into your body's internal environment

4

the __________ forms a continuous route from mouth to anus

digestive tract

5

the contents of the digestive tract are actually part of the external environment until absorbed through the _________

intestinal wall

6

what is the order of the digestive tract? (list 8)

- mouth
- pharynx
- esophagus
- stomach
- small intestine
- large intestine (colon)
- rectum
- anus

7

what are the 4 glandular organs in the digestive system?

- salivary glands
- liver
- gall bladder
- pancreas

8

what does the digestive system aim to do?

absorb maximally

9

waste material excreted via the gastrointestinal tract is called ________

feces

10

feces consists mainly of _______ and ______ (including fibre)

bacteria and undigested material

11

nutrition

the science of food and how the body uses it in health and disease

12

list 6 essential nutrients

1) proteins
2) fats
3) carbohydrates
4) vitamins
5) minerals
6) water

13

in the context of nutrition, what does essential refer to?

nutrients that the body is unable to manufacture without

14

what are 2 reasons essential nutrients are needed?

1) necessary for energy
2) needed for the building and maintenance of tissues

15

what are essential nutrients relied upon for?

the regulation of body functions

16

what are the 3 nutrients that provide the body with energy?

1) proteins
2) fats
3) carbohydrates

17

energy is expressed in ______

kilocalories

18

1 kilocalorie = ____ calories

1000

19

what is the difference between calories and Calories

when there is a capital "C" it refers to kilocalorie

20

_________ = heat required to raise the temperature of 1kg of water 1 degree celcius

1 kilocalorie

21

an average person requires approximately ______ kilocalories per day

2000

22

what is the calorie density of fats?

9 Cal/g

23

what is the calorie density of alcohol?

7 Cal/g

24

what is the calorie density of carbohydrates?

4 Cal/g

25

what is the calorie density of proteins?

4 Cal/g

26

_______ are found in every living cell

proteins

27

proteins act as structural components for what 6 places?

1) muscles
2) bones
3) blood
4) enzymes
5) some hormones
6) cell membranes

28

proteins are composed of chains of ________

amino acids

29

there are ____ commonly recognized amino acids

20

30

list the 9 essential (cannot be synthesized) amino acids

1) histidine
2) isoleucine
3) leucine
4) lysine
5) methionine
6) phenylalanine
7) Threonine
8) Tryptophan
9) Valine

31

how are individual sources of protein considered complete?

if they supply all nine essential amino acids

32

complete protein sources include what?

animal products such as meat, cheese, fish, eggs, poultry and milk

33

incomplete protein sources include

plant sources such as grains, beans, peas and nuts

34

true or false: plant-based incomplete protein sources are still good sources of amino acids

true

35

how can someone turn an incomplete protein source into a complete?

by combining it with other incomplete protein sources to get all 9 essential amino acids

36

protein should comprise of __ - __% of total caloric intake

10-15%

37

what is excess protein stored as?

fat

38

inadequate protein consumption can lead to what?

muscle wasting

39

fats are also known as _____

lipids

40

fat should be about __ - __% of total calories

20-35%

41

_____ is a concentrated source of energy

fat

42

what are 5 things fat serves to do?

1) provide a source of energy
2) insulate the body
3) cushion organs
4) aid the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins
5) add flavour and texture to foods

43

________ fats are solid at room temperature

saturated fats

44

what kind of fat is found predominantly in animal products?

saturated fats

45

saturated fats has been linked to ________ disease and should not exceed __% of total fat intake

linked to cardiovascular disease and should not exceed 7% of total fat intake

46

__________ and ________ fats usually come from plant sources

monounsaturated and polyunsaturated

47

_________ fat is liquid at room temperature (oil)

unsaturated fats

48

what kind of fat is more desirable?

unsaturated

49

unsaturated fats appear to be lower in ___________ than saturated fats

blood cholesterol

50

unsaturated fats are shown to reduce the risk of ______ disease

heart disease

51

processed plant oils can be high in _______ fats

saturated fats

52

tropical oils( such as palm oil and coconut oil) used in processed foods are high in ________ fats

saturated fats

53

hydrogenated fats and oils are created from ________ fats and are used to prevent spoiling and to add texture

unsaturated fats

54

true or false: elevated intake of saturated fats may increase blood cholesterol levels

true

55

_______ produces trans fatty acids that may increase blood cholesterol

hydrogenation

56

increased blood cholesterol and trigylceride levels have been implicated with the development of _______ disease

heart disease

57

what is the primary source of energy?

carbohydrates

58

carbohydrates should be __ - __% of daily calories

55-60%

59

what are the 3 groups of carbohydrates? what are they based on?

the 3 groups of carbohydrates are: monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides and are based on the number of saccharides

60

_________ and _________ are considered sugars

monosaccharides and disaccharides

61

_________ are considered starches

polysaccharides

62

Liver and muscles use glucose for carbohydrate storage in the form of _____

glycogen

63

carbohydrates consumed in excess of storage capacity as glycogen are stored as ______

fat

64

what do vitamins serve as?

coenzymes in chemical reactions

65

why are vitamins 'organic?'

because they contain carbon atoms

66

true or false: vitamins are required in large amounts

FALSE: vitamins are required in small amounts

67

vitamins are necessary for what 3 things?

1) growth
2) reproduction
3) health maintenance

68

what are the 2 classifications of vitamins? what are they based on?

1) water-soluble vitamins
2) fat-soluble vitamins
-based on their ability to dissolve in either water or fat tissue

69

what classification of vitamins are not stored and excess amounts are eliminated in the urine?

Water-soluble vitamins

70

__________ vitamins include vitamin C and B- complex vitamins

water-soluble vitamins

71

fat-soluble vitamins include vitamins, __.__.__ and __

A, D, E and K

72

when taken in excess, fat-soluble vitamins are stored in ______

fat tissue

73

what can over consumption of fat soluble vitamins result in?

toxicity (especially in vitamins A and D)

74

why are minerals considered 'inorganic?'

because they do not contain carbon atoms

75

what 4 things are minerals necessary for?

1) structural elements (teeth, hormones and muscles)
2) regulation of body functions (muscle contractions, blood clotting, heart function)
3) aid in the growth and maintenance of body tissues
4) catalytic action in energy release

76

list 6 reasons why water is important

1) nutrient transport
2) waste transport
3) digestion and absorption
4) regulation of body temperature
5) lubrication
6) chemical reactions

77

what are 4 ways body water is lost?

1) urine
2) feces
3) sweat
4) evaporation in lungs

78

excessive water loss happens for what 4 reasons?

1) illness
2) exercise
3) hot environment
4) consumption of coffee, tea, alcohol

79

we need to consume approx. __mL of water for every calorie burned

1mL of water

80

______ and ______ can be signs of dehydration

weakness and fatigue

81

fibre includes what?

plant substances that cannot be digested by the body

82

what does fibre add to feces? why?

bulk to facilitate elimination

83

what can a large intake of fibre lead to?

intestinal gas

84

what are 4 rich sources of fibre?

1) fruit
2) legumes
3) oats
4) barley

85

what are 4 other sources of fibre?

1) wheat
2) grains
3) vegetables
4) whole grain foods

86

true or false: We should enjoy a variety of foods

true

87

what 5 products should be emphasized?

cereals, breads, other grain products, vegetables and fruits

88

true or false: we should eat tons of salt, alcohol and caffeine

FALSE: limit salt, alcohol and caffeine

89

what are the 5 food groups?

1) vegetables and fruits
2) grain products
3) milk products
4) meat and alternatives
5) other foods (such as junk food)

90

what is the rainbow design of the food guide?

a visual representation of the relative amounts of each food group recommended

91

what does the amount of food needed each day from the food groups vary according to? (list 6)

1) age
2) body size
3) gender
4) activity level
5) if you are pregnant
6) if you are breast feeding

92

true or false: every once in a while it is okay to eat fast food

true

93

true or false: even if we are eating the right foods, it is recommended to take vitamin and mineral supplements

FALSE: if you're eating the right foods, than you should be getting all vitamins and minerals in that

94

how do nutritional needs change as we grow older?

- metabolic rate goes down
- calorie intake goes down as activity level goes down