Flashcards in Chapter 19 - Physical Activity and Sport Issues Deck (77)
what is an example of modern sport being a reflection of our society?
winning at all costs
the study of the functioning of human society in various environments (e.g., workplace, church, school)
the study of the functioning of society within the modern sport environment
what are 7 important issues in sport?
1) Agression and Violence in sport
2) cheating in sport
3) gender and sport
4) race and ethnicity in sport
5) racism in sport
6) other victims discrimination
7) future sporting trends
what does violence in sport parallel?
the reality of violence in society as a whole
true or false: we see examples of societal violence watching the evening news but never watching sports news
FALSE: we see examples of societal violence watching the evening news, but sports news isnt much better
what is an example of violence in soccer?
2006: zinedin zidane head butts marco materazzi in world cup final
what is an example of violence in hockey?
2000: mart mcsorley knocs out donal brashear by slashing him in the head with his stick
what is an example of violence in basketball?
1995: vermon maxwell hits an abusive fan in the sands
what is an example of violence in baseball?
roger clemens throws the jagged piece of a broken bat at mike piazza
what are the 3 distinct components of aggressive behavior?
1) hostile aggression
2) instrumental aggression
3) assertive behaviour
what is the intent of all the hostile aggression and instrumental aggression components of aggressive behaviour?
to cause harm
what is the goal of hostile aggression?
to cause suffering
what is the goal of instrumental aggression?
to achieve some external reward
true or false: anger is usually involve in hostile agression
true or false: anger is usually involved in instrumental aggression
FALSE: no anger is involved in instrumental aggression
is hostile aggression performed inside or outside the rules of the game?
outside the rules of the game
is instrumental aggression performed inside or outside the rules of the game?
give an example of hostile aggression
fist fighting in hockey
give an example of instrumental aggression
aggressive checking meant to hurt the opponent
assertive behaviour is often confused with _______
in assertive behaviour there is an increased _____ and ____ expenditure
effort and energy
is there an intent to harm in assertive behaviour?
is there anger involved in assertive behaviour?
no anger involved
can assertive behaviour result in harm?
may result in harm, but any resultant harm is incidental to the game
give an example of assertive behaviour
assertive checking meant to show down the opponent
what are 5 causes of aggressive behaviour in sport?
1) parents and coaches
2) outcome of the contest and league standing
3) point spread
4) physical contact
5) fan reaction
what are 2 ways that parents can cause aggressive behaviour in sport?
1) through comments like "bob can really take care of himself"
2) by demonstrating interest in televised sporting event fights
what is a recommendation for parents to not cause aggressive behaviour in sport?
good role models need to convey a negative reaction to aggression
does more aggression occur after losing a contest or winning? why?
losing, because of frustration
why do lower league standing teams demonstrate more aggression?
because of frustration and little to lose
what is a recommendation to reduce aggressive behaviour from the outcome of the contest and league standing?
refocus the teams efforts into more productive channels, e.g., a new game plan
why does a larger point spread cause more aggression to occur?
nothing to lose because game is perceived to be out of reach
what is a recommendation to reduce aggressive behaviour from point spread?
refocus attention e.g., try out a new play
do sports with a lot of physical contact result in more aggression? why?
yes because if a player believes that the opponent is trying to hurt him/her there is an increased likelihood that aggression will occur
what are 2 recommendations to prevent aggressive behaviour from physical contact?
1) encouraging athletes to increase effort vs. aggressive acts
2) victory (vs. harm) = the ultimate way to get back at an opponent
does more aggression occur when a team plays at home or away from home? why?
more aggression occurs when a team plays away from home because it is linked to fan reaction. i.e., unfriendly crowd is likely to anger the visiting team
what is a recommendation to prevent aggressive behaviour from fan reaction?
players must learn to "tune out" this fan reaction and focus on the game
behaviour aimed at getting around the rules or simply breaking them
why do athletes cheat?
1) the win-at-all costs mentality
2) cheating results from not abiding by the sport ethic
cluster of norms that describe what it means to be a successful athlete
what are the 4 specific norms that make up the sport ethic?
1) an athlete make sacrifices for the game
2) an athlete strives for distinction
3) an athlete accepts risks and plays through pain
4) an athlete accepts no limit in the pursuit of possibilities
what 2 things does an athletes love and dedication to the game involve?
1) meeting the competition demands without question
2) making sacrifices (e.g., family)
what are 2 ways athletes strive for distinction?
1) constantly seeking improvement
2) continuously getting closer to perfection
- "swifter, higher, stronger"
athletes do not give in to ______, ______, or ______
pressure, pain or fear
success comes with what 2 things?
1) overcoming the fear and challenge of competition
2) accepting the increased risk of failure and injury
when does cheating occur?
when the norms of the sport ethic are not accepted
what are the most popular forms of deviance?
1) athlete recruitment
2) academic cheating
3) cheating in games
4) performance-enhancing drugs
true or false: there is little evidence that athletes engage in more academic cheating than other students
what are 2 reasons athlete use performance enhancing drugs?
1) to gain a winning edge
2) just to stay competitive
why are performance enhancing drugs illegal?
1) they give one an unfair advantage
2) they have serious health side-effects
what prevented women from participating in physical activity in the past?
1) lack of rights
2) emphasis on reproduction
3) societal expectations
what did physical exertion have to do with womens emphasis on reproduction?
it was thought to detroy a womens potential to have children
what was the single most important change in the world of sport over the past generation?
INCREASED PARTICIPATION of FEMALES
what led to the increased participation of females in sport?
1) new opportunities
2) political pressure and equal rights legislation
3) the global womens rights movement
4) the expanding health and fitness movement
5) increased media coverage of women in sport
what are 2 reasons for the new opportnities for women in sport?
1) development of new teams and programs since the late 1970s is linked with increased participation
2) resulted from politcial changes
in early 1980s in canada, pressure womens groups led to the investigation of sport opportunities: what were the finding from the 1984 study?
that 64% of inter-collegiate athletes were males
in early 1980s in canada, pressure womens groups led to the investigation of sport opportunities: what were the finding from the 1987 study?
that 64% of inter-collegiate athletes were still male
true or false: womens sports are not usually promoted as mass sports today
true or false: female athletes enjoy greater financial rewards than male athletes today
FALSE: male athletes still enjoy greater financial rewards than female athletes
what happened at the 1996, UNs 4th world conference on women?
-increased efforts to provide sports opportunities
-new efforts to promote education, health and human right for females all over the world
true or false: womens sports are still not covered as often or with the same detail as mens sports
involves reference to physical traits BUT is based on meanings that people have given to those particular physical traits
-not based on physical traits
-based on characteristics associated with cultural traditions and background
a socially identified group that experiences discrimination and suffers social disadvantages
the black athlete - view of the past
-only white athletes were allowed to play on major league baseball teams
-black athletes played in negro leagues
who was the first black baseball player to play in the major leagues (1947)?
what were the 2 major concerns of native peoples with respect to sports?
1) equity concerns (bottom of social ladder, lack financial resources, sports facilities, coaching and sporting event opportunities)
2) cultural concerns
(maintenance of culture values in sports e.g., snow snake or lacross e.g, inclusion and sharing (vs competition))
what are 3 derogatory words for disabled
crippled, handicapped, retarded
who was the first north american athlete to "come out"? (1976)
-formed in 1982
-people of all sexual orientations are welcomed
what is the key philosophy of gay games?
participation, support, inclusiveness, enjoyment
why were older adults discouraged from participating in sport?
1) developmental theory
2) old medical practice
is there a greater emphasis on illness prevention or treatment?
is there a bigger emphasis on involvement in participation sports or performance sports?