Chapter 2 - Human Anatomy Flashcards Preview

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Human anatomy

The study of the structures of the human body and how those structures relate to each other

1

Structure determines ________

Function (the structures of the human body are well designed for efficient movement)

2

Anatomical position

-standing erect, facing forward, legs straight, palms forward, arms hanging at the sides, toes feet heels parallel to eachother
-the starting point for describing the human body
- universally accepted
-used in all anatomical descriptions and reference for movements

3

Lateral

Away from the midline of the body

4

Medial

Towards the midline of the body

5

Distal

Further from some specified point

6

Proximal

Closer to some specified point

7

Anterior

Front of or front of your body

8

Posterior

Behind or back of body

9

Superior

Above

10

Inferior

Below

11

Supine

Lying on your back like Doing a sit up

12

Prone

Lying face down like doing a push up

13

Median or sagittal plane

Vertical plane that bisects the body into right and left halves

14

Frontal plan3

A vertical plane that bisects the body into front and back

15

Transverse or horizontal plane

A horizontal plane that bisects the body into top and bottom

16

Flexion

Reduces the angle between two bones at a joint

17

Extension

Increases the angle between 2 bones at a joint

18

Abduction

Moving a segment away from the midline of the body

19

Adduction

Moving a segment towards the midline of the body

20

Circumduction

A come of movement that does not include any rotation

21

Rotation

Turning of a bone on its longitudinal axis

22

Medial rotation

Rotation towards the midline

23

Lateral rotation

Rotation away from the midline

24

Pronation

When the palm is moved to face posteriorly

25

Supination

When the palm is moved to face anterior my

26

Dorsiexion

Bringing the top of the foot toward the lower leg or shin

27

Plantar flexion

"Planting" the foot

28

Inversion

When the sole is turned inward

29

Eversion

When the sole is turned outward or away from the median plane of the body

30

There are approx ____ bones that make up the human skeleton

206

31

Function of skeletal system is:

To provide the supporting framework:
To protect the vital organs

32

_______ is the outermost part of the bone composition and is the densest

Cortical bone

33

What makes bones denser and more mineralized?

Regular physical activity

34

Axial skeleton

Made up of the skull, sternum, ribs, and vertebral column

35

Skull is divided into two parts. What are they?

Calvaria (cranial vault) and facial bones

36

Calvaria (cranial vault)

The bones which make up the skull (frontal bone, parietal bone, occipital bone and temporal bone)

37

Facial bones

Smaller distinctive bones that make up the facial features (lacrimal bone, nasal bone, zygomatic bone, maxilla bone and mandible bone)

38

Which part of the jaw is fixed and which part is hinged

The mandible is hinged so it is movable however the maxilla is fixed so it is immovable

39

Vertebral column

-7 cervical vertebrae (of the neck)
-13 thoracic vertebrae (of the chest)
-5 lumbar vertebrae (for the lower back)
-sacrum (mid-line region of buttocks)
-coccyx (4 or 5 fused vertebrae of the tail bone)

40

Ribs

Protect the heart, lungs liver spleen and kidneys

41

There are ___ pairs of ribs

12

42

Ribs are made up of what 2 things?

Bone and cartilage which strengthen the chest cage and permit it to expand

43

The ribs are classified into 3 groups based on anterior attachment. What are these 3 groups?

True ribs
False ribs
Floating ribs

44

True ribs

Ribs 1-7

Attach to both the vertebrae and the sternum

45

False ribs

Ribs 8-10

Attach only to the sternum indirectly through the 7th rib

46

Floating ribs

Rib 11 and 12

Only attach to the vertebral column

47

Appendicular skeleton

Made up of the pectoral girdle (chest), pelvic girdle (hip), the upper limbs and the lower limbs

48

Pectoral girdle

Made up of the scapula (shoulder blade) and the clavicle (collar bone)
- gives the upper limb lots of mobility

49

_________ joint is the only point of attachment between the axial skeleton at the pectoral girdle

Sternoclavicular joint

50

Pelvic girdle

Formed by a pair of os coxae (shoulder bones)
Supports the bladder and the abdominal contents

51

The pelvic girdle attaches posteriorly to the _______

Sacrum

52

The pelvic girdle attaches anterior lay to ________

Pectoral girdle

53

The pelvic girdle attaches laterally to the head of the ____ bone through a cup-shaped acetabulum

Thigh bone

54

Upper limb

Consists of humerus (long arm bone that extends from the shoulder to the elbow), and the radius and ulna (forearm bones which go from the elbow to the wrist)

55

Radius

Located on thumb side of hand

56

Ulna

Baby finger side of hand

57

When you pronate (face palm inferiorly) the forearm, the _____ actually crosses over the _____.

Radius crosses over the Ulna

58

Wrist

Has 2 rows that each have 4 bones in them (total of 8) called carpals

59

The long bones of the hand are called ______.

Metacarpals

60

How many phalanges/phalanx are there on each finger?

Each finger has 3 except the thumb only has 2

61

Lower limb consists of?

Femur, patella, tibia, fibula, medial malleolus, lateral malleolus, tarsals, calcaneus, talus, metatarsals and phalanges

62

The thigh bone that extends from the hip to the knee is the _____

Femur

63

Another name for the knee cap?

Patella

64

What kind of bone is the knee cap/patella?

Sesamoid bone in the tendon of the quadriceps muscle (thigh)

65

What are the 2 leg bones that extend from the knee to the ankle? Which is medial, which is lateral?

Tibia is medial, fibula is lateral

66

What is on the distal end of the tibia?

Medial malleolus

67

What is on the distal end of the fibula?

The lateral malleolus

68

Tarsals

Ankle bones

-calcaneus and talus

69

Calcaneus

Heel bone

70

Talus

Top of foot near ankle?

71

Metatarsals

5 bones of the foot that connect to the toes

72

There are 3 _____ per toe except for the great toe which has 2.

Phalanges (toe bones). Called proximal, middle and distal

73

Joint

A point of connection between 2 bones

74

Strands of ______ tissue, and ______ hold the bones together and ensure the stability of joints.

Connective tissue and ligaments

75

This "ties the pieces together"

Ligaments

76

Sprain

Damage to the ligaments/capsule of the joint

77

How are joints classified?

According to their motion capabilities

78

Syntharthroses

Immovable joints
Located at the fibula and tibia at the ankle

79

Amphiarthroses

Slightly movable joints
Joints between the vertebrae in the spine

80

Diarthroses

Allow the greatest movement of motion
Located at the knee

81

What are joints further classified by

The material that joints them

82

Fibrous joint

Allow no movement
Sutures of Skull

83

Cartilaginous joint

Allow limited movement
Edge intervertebral dises, spine

84

Synovial joints

Allow large range of movements
Eg hip and shoulder joints and knee

85

What are the 3 basic types of synovial joints

1.uniaxial
2.biaxial
3.multiaxial

86

The elbow only moves up and down. What type of synovial joint is this?

Uniaxial (movement only about one axis)

87

The knee goes up and down but also moves inside and out. What type of synovial joint is this?

Biaxial (movement about two perpendicular axis)

88

Shoulder and hip joints move in all directions because of their ball and socket. What type of synovial joint is this?

Multiaxial (movement about all 3 perpendicular axis)

89

What are the 3 joints of the pectoral girdle?

1.sternoclavicular joint
2.acromioclavicular joint
3.glenohumeral joint

90

What is the only joint connecting the pectoral girdle to the axial skeleton?

Sternoclavicular joint

91

Sternoclavicular joint

Connects the sternum to the clavicle
True synovial joint strengthened by intracapsular discs and extrinsic ligaments

92

Acromioclavicular joint

Unites the lateral end of the clavicle with the acromion process of the scapula

Where shoulder separations often occur in sports (AC separation)

93

Glenohumeral joint

Connects the upper limb and the scapula

A typical multiaxial joint

Has a wide range of movement at this joint

Compromise- relative lack of stability

Cup like socket in scapula where head of humerus sits

94

There are 3 joints at the elbow. What are they?

1. Humero-ulnar joint
2. Humero-radial joint
3. Radio-ulnar joint

95

What is the medial (with respect to anatomical position) elbow joint between the trochlea of the humerus and the olecranon process of the ulna?

Humero-ulnar joint

96

What is the lateral elbow joint between the capitulum of the humerus and the head of the radius?

Humero-radial join

97

What elbow joint is between the radius and the ulna?

Radio-ulnar joint

98

What is the joint of the wrist?

Radio-carpal joint
-between the distal end of the radius and the carpals
-movements are flexion-extension and abduction adduction
-on the lateral side of the ulnar-carpal joint

99

What is the main joint of the pelvic girdle?

Hip joint
-between the head of the femur and the cup (acetabulum) of the hip bone (os coxae)
-like the shoulder joint, the hip joint is:
A ball and socket joint
Multiaxial joint that allows flexion extension, abduction adduction, and circumduction
-aka the femoral acetabulum joint

100

What is another name for the knee joint? What range of movement do you find at this joint? What type f joint is this?

Another name is the tibiofemoral joint (where tibia and femur come together)

There is an incredible range of movement - flexion extension

It is a synovial joint

101

Between the patella and femur there is a sliding joint called what?

Patella femoral join

102

what is another name for the ankle joint? What bones are found at the ankle joint?

Another name for the ankle joint is the talocural joint

The bones that are found there are:
-medial and lateral malleoli of the tibia and fibula
-head of the talus
-calcaneus (heel bone)

103

There are over ___ muscles in the human body

600

104

What do the muscles do? What must happen for them to do this?

They allow the skeleton to move. To cause movement both ends of each muscle must be attached to bone

105

There are 2 types of attachment of bone to muscle. What are they?

Origin or proximal attachment
Insertion or distal attachment

106

Origin or proximal attachment

The attachment close to the center of the body

107

Insertion or distal

The attachment away from the centre of the body

108

Neck muscles

There are muscles posterior, lateral and anterior to the neck or cervical region

109

What do the neck muscles do?

Maintain the position in which the head sits on the 1st cervical vertebra (atlas)
ie. they hold up our head

Also permit a wide range of movement

110

Trapezius - upper fibers

Important lateral neck muscles

Movements:
Acting alone, tilt the head to the same side

Together,, they assist in neck extension

111

There are _____ muscles and ______ muscles that act to hold the pectoral girdle to the chest wall

Anterior and posterior

112

What are the 4 anterior muscles that hold the pectoral girdle to the chest wall?

1. PECTORALIS MAJOR
2.Pectoralis minor
3.subclavius
4.serratus anterior

113

What are the 5 posterior neck muscles that hold the pectoral girdle to the chest wall?

1.TRAPEZIUS
2.Latissimus dorsi
3.levatir scapulae
4.rhimboids major
5.rhomboids minor

114

What is the anterior muscle that attaches the scapula to the humerus and act across the shoulder joint?

Subcapularis

115

What are the 4 posterior muscles that attaches the scapula to the humerus and act across the shoulder joint?

1.supraspinatus
2.infraspinatus
3.teres major
4.teres minor

116

What is the lateral muscle that attaches the scapula to the humerus and act across the shoulder joint?

DELTOID

117

What are the two parts to the anterior compartment of the muscles of the arms?

1. Biceps brachii
2. Brachialis

118

What do the biceps brachii attach to?

Proximal my to the voracious process of the scapulac (short head) and the glenoid fossa (long head)

Didt ally to the proximal part of the radius movements of the arm

Flexor of the elbow joint

Supinatir of the forearm

119

The biceps brachii allow the radius to turn ______

Upwards

120

The biceps brachii are involved in:
A elbow flexion and supination of the forearm

B elbow extension and pronation of the forearm

Elbow flexion and supination of the forearm

121

What does the brachialis attach to?

Proximal to the anterior surface of the humerus

Dismally to the coton lid process of the ulna

122

The brachialis attaches on the _____ and the biceps brachii attach on the ____

Ulna and radius

123

What movements do the brachialis give the arms?

Powerful flexor of the elbow joint

It works along with the biceps brachii

124

What is the muscle in the posterior compartment of the muscles of the arm?

Triceps brachii

125

Where do they triceps brachii attach?

Proximal my to the humerus (medial and lateral head)

Dis tally to the olecranon process of the ulna (together with the long head)

126

What movement does the tricep brachii give the arm?

Elbow extensor

127

What parts of the arm do forearm muscles act on?

Elbow wrist and digits

128

What are the 2 muscles of the forearm?

Flexor pronate group

Extensor supinatir group

129

Flexor pronator group

Attached to the medial epicondylitis of the humerus

Attached on medial side and lead down to forearm

130

Extensor supinatir group

Attached to lateral epicondylitis of the humerus

Attach on the lateral side and cause supination

131

Anterior muscles of the pelvic girdle?

Sits in lumbar spine

Attached on the upper femur

Iliac is is the lower portion

Dias is the upper medial portion
They work together
Major function is to flex the hip

132

Posterior and lateral muscles of the pelvic girdle

Gluteals

Lateral or external rotators of the hip (6 little muscles)

133

What are the 3 gluteal muscles?

GLUTEUS MAXIMUS
gluteus minimus
Gluteus medius

134

Gluteus Maximus

Largest of the 3 gluteus muscles

Principal extensor of the hip

135

Gluteus medius and minimus

Assist in hip extension

Abduct the hip

136

What is another name for the medial compartment of the thigh muscles?

Groin area

137

What are the muscles of the groin area?

1. Pectinseus (1st from top)
2. Gracilis (bottom)
3. Adductors
-adductor longus (3rd from the top)
-adductor brevis (2nd from the top)
-adductor Magnus (2nd from the bottom)

Remember in order alphabet, B first then L then M

138

What is the primary action of the adductors in the groin area?

To addict the thigh towards the midline
These muscles tightens up when you lunge from one side to the other

139

What are the two muscles of the anterior compartment of the thighs?

SARTORIUS & QUADRICEPS

140

SARTORIUS

Longest muscle in the body

141

QUADRICEPS

Biggest function is knee extension
- rectus femoris
- vastus lateralis- outside
- vastus intermediate
- vastus medial - inside

142

SARTORIUS and rectus femoris also help flex at the _____

Hip

143

What are the 3 muscles of the posterior compartment of the thighs?

Hamstrings
Tendinotis
Membranous

144

Hamstrings

Biceps femoris
Semitendinosus - thick
Semi membranous - fibrous

145

Where do the hamstrings attach?

Proximaly to the ischil tuberosity

Distally biceps femoris to the head of the fibula and the semitendenosous and semimembranosous to the tibia

146

The hamstrings flex ______ and extend at _____

The knee and extend at the hip

147

Tendinotis

Attached to the front side of the tibia

148

Membranosous

Attaches to the back side of the tibia
Flexes knee and extends hip

149

What are the 3 muscles of the anterior compartment of the legs?

TIBIALIS ANTERIOR
EXTENSOR HALLUCIS LONGUS
EXTERNSOR DIGITORUM

150

TIBIALIS ANTERIOR

Main muscle involved with dorsi flexion

151

EXTENSOR HALLUCIS LONGUS

Goes down to the big toe and causes it to come up

152

EXTENSOR DIGITORUM

Goes down to digits of the foot and causes the toes to come up

153

What are the 2 muscles of the lateral compartment of the legs?

PERONEUS LONGUS
PERONEUS BREVIS

154

PERONEUS LONGUS

Function is to evert the foot

155

PERONEUS BREVIS

Attached to the styloid of the 5th metatarsals

156

PERONEUS LONGUS and PERONEUS BREVIS proximally attach to the lateral surface of _______. They dismally attach to ______.

The tibia and the foot

157

What is the movement of the PERONEUS LONGUS and the PERONEUS BREVIS?

Plantar flexors

Ever gets of the sole of the foot

158

What are the 2 muscles of the superficial group of the posterior compartment of the legs?

Gastrocnemius
Soleus

159

Gastrocnemius

Has 2 proximal heads

Proximal unattached to the medial and lateral epicondyles of the distal femur

160

Soleus

Proximaly attaches to head proximal ends of tibia and fibula

Called this because it looks like a fillet fish (sole)

161

Gastrocnemius and soleus come together to form an _________ tendon

Achilles

162

Achilles' tendon attaches to _______

Calcaneus

163

What are the principal flexors of the ankle?

Gastrocnemius and soleus

164

What are the 3 muscles of the deep group of the posterior compartment in the legs?

1.tibialis posterior
2.flexor digitoxin Longus
3.flexor Hallucis longus

165

What is the primary function of the 3 deep group muscles?

Primary function is flexion of the toes
Assist in plantar flexion of the ankle

166

What are the 3 obliques of the abdomen?

EXTERNAL OBLIQUE
INTERNAL ONLIQUE
TRANSVERSE OBLIQUE

167

What are the functions of the oblique muscles?

Lateral bending of the abdomen

Rotation of the abdomen

Extension of the abdomen during forced inspiration

Allow the development of a pregnant uterus

Contract to help expel fecal contents from the rectum

168

Rectus abdominus

Paired midline muscles

Powerful flexor of the anterior abdominal wall
Strengthening of the abdominal muscles is a very important part of the back therapy, because the abdominals, act support the back

Mid portion of the belly

When this is well developed it becomes a 6 pack

Main purpose is to cause trunk flexion
Must be supine (sit up position) to get trunk flexion because if you are standing the lower back is doing the work