Flashcards in Chapter 2 - Human Anatomy Deck (169):
The study of the structures of the human body and how those structures relate to each other
Structure determines ________
Function (the structures of the human body are well designed for efficient movement)
-standing erect, facing forward, legs straight, palms forward, arms hanging at the sides, toes feet heels parallel to eachother
-the starting point for describing the human body
- universally accepted
-used in all anatomical descriptions and reference for movements
Away from the midline of the body
Towards the midline of the body
Further from some specified point
Closer to some specified point
Front of or front of your body
Behind or back of body
Lying on your back like Doing a sit up
Lying face down like doing a push up
Median or sagittal plane
Vertical plane that bisects the body into right and left halves
A vertical plane that bisects the body into front and back
Transverse or horizontal plane
A horizontal plane that bisects the body into top and bottom
Reduces the angle between two bones at a joint
Increases the angle between 2 bones at a joint
Moving a segment away from the midline of the body
Moving a segment towards the midline of the body
A come of movement that does not include any rotation
Turning of a bone on its longitudinal axis
Rotation towards the midline
Rotation away from the midline
When the palm is moved to face posteriorly
When the palm is moved to face anterior my
Bringing the top of the foot toward the lower leg or shin
"Planting" the foot
When the sole is turned inward
When the sole is turned outward or away from the median plane of the body
There are approx ____ bones that make up the human skeleton
Function of skeletal system is:
To provide the supporting framework:
To protect the vital organs
_______ is the outermost part of the bone composition and is the densest
What makes bones denser and more mineralized?
Regular physical activity
Made up of the skull, sternum, ribs, and vertebral column
Skull is divided into two parts. What are they?
Calvaria (cranial vault) and facial bones
Calvaria (cranial vault)
The bones which make up the skull (frontal bone, parietal bone, occipital bone and temporal bone)
Smaller distinctive bones that make up the facial features (lacrimal bone, nasal bone, zygomatic bone, maxilla bone and mandible bone)
Which part of the jaw is fixed and which part is hinged
The mandible is hinged so it is movable however the maxilla is fixed so it is immovable
-7 cervical vertebrae (of the neck)
-13 thoracic vertebrae (of the chest)
-5 lumbar vertebrae (for the lower back)
-sacrum (mid-line region of buttocks)
-coccyx (4 or 5 fused vertebrae of the tail bone)
Protect the heart, lungs liver spleen and kidneys
There are ___ pairs of ribs
Ribs are made up of what 2 things?
Bone and cartilage which strengthen the chest cage and permit it to expand
The ribs are classified into 3 groups based on anterior attachment. What are these 3 groups?
Attach to both the vertebrae and the sternum
Attach only to the sternum indirectly through the 7th rib
Rib 11 and 12
Only attach to the vertebral column
Made up of the pectoral girdle (chest), pelvic girdle (hip), the upper limbs and the lower limbs
Made up of the scapula (shoulder blade) and the clavicle (collar bone)
- gives the upper limb lots of mobility
_________ joint is the only point of attachment between the axial skeleton at the pectoral girdle
Formed by a pair of os coxae (shoulder bones)
Supports the bladder and the abdominal contents
The pelvic girdle attaches posteriorly to the _______
The pelvic girdle attaches anterior lay to ________
The pelvic girdle attaches laterally to the head of the ____ bone through a cup-shaped acetabulum
Consists of humerus (long arm bone that extends from the shoulder to the elbow), and the radius and ulna (forearm bones which go from the elbow to the wrist)
Located on thumb side of hand
Baby finger side of hand
When you pronate (face palm inferiorly) the forearm, the _____ actually crosses over the _____.
Radius crosses over the Ulna
Has 2 rows that each have 4 bones in them (total of 8) called carpals
The long bones of the hand are called ______.
How many phalanges/phalanx are there on each finger?
Each finger has 3 except the thumb only has 2
Lower limb consists of?
Femur, patella, tibia, fibula, medial malleolus, lateral malleolus, tarsals, calcaneus, talus, metatarsals and phalanges
The thigh bone that extends from the hip to the knee is the _____
Another name for the knee cap?
What kind of bone is the knee cap/patella?
Sesamoid bone in the tendon of the quadriceps muscle (thigh)
What are the 2 leg bones that extend from the knee to the ankle? Which is medial, which is lateral?
Tibia is medial, fibula is lateral
What is on the distal end of the tibia?
What is on the distal end of the fibula?
The lateral malleolus
-calcaneus and talus
Top of foot near ankle?
5 bones of the foot that connect to the toes
There are 3 _____ per toe except for the great toe which has 2.
Phalanges (toe bones). Called proximal, middle and distal
A point of connection between 2 bones
Strands of ______ tissue, and ______ hold the bones together and ensure the stability of joints.
Connective tissue and ligaments
This "ties the pieces together"
Damage to the ligaments/capsule of the joint
How are joints classified?
According to their motion capabilities
Located at the fibula and tibia at the ankle
Slightly movable joints
Joints between the vertebrae in the spine
Allow the greatest movement of motion
Located at the knee
What are joints further classified by
The material that joints them
Allow no movement
Sutures of Skull
Allow limited movement
Edge intervertebral dises, spine
Allow large range of movements
Eg hip and shoulder joints and knee
What are the 3 basic types of synovial joints
The elbow only moves up and down. What type of synovial joint is this?
Uniaxial (movement only about one axis)
The knee goes up and down but also moves inside and out. What type of synovial joint is this?
Biaxial (movement about two perpendicular axis)
Shoulder and hip joints move in all directions because of their ball and socket. What type of synovial joint is this?
Multiaxial (movement about all 3 perpendicular axis)
What are the 3 joints of the pectoral girdle?
What is the only joint connecting the pectoral girdle to the axial skeleton?
Connects the sternum to the clavicle
True synovial joint strengthened by intracapsular discs and extrinsic ligaments
Unites the lateral end of the clavicle with the acromion process of the scapula
Where shoulder separations often occur in sports (AC separation)
Connects the upper limb and the scapula
A typical multiaxial joint
Has a wide range of movement at this joint
Compromise- relative lack of stability
Cup like socket in scapula where head of humerus sits
There are 3 joints at the elbow. What are they?
1. Humero-ulnar joint
2. Humero-radial joint
3. Radio-ulnar joint
What is the medial (with respect to anatomical position) elbow joint between the trochlea of the humerus and the olecranon process of the ulna?
What is the lateral elbow joint between the capitulum of the humerus and the head of the radius?
What elbow joint is between the radius and the ulna?
What is the joint of the wrist?
-between the distal end of the radius and the carpals
-movements are flexion-extension and abduction adduction
-on the lateral side of the ulnar-carpal joint
What is the main joint of the pelvic girdle?
-between the head of the femur and the cup (acetabulum) of the hip bone (os coxae)
-like the shoulder joint, the hip joint is:
A ball and socket joint
Multiaxial joint that allows flexion extension, abduction adduction, and circumduction
-aka the femoral acetabulum joint
What is another name for the knee joint? What range of movement do you find at this joint? What type f joint is this?
Another name is the tibiofemoral joint (where tibia and femur come together)
There is an incredible range of movement - flexion extension
It is a synovial joint
Between the patella and femur there is a sliding joint called what?
Patella femoral join
what is another name for the ankle joint? What bones are found at the ankle joint?
Another name for the ankle joint is the talocural joint
The bones that are found there are:
-medial and lateral malleoli of the tibia and fibula
-head of the talus
-calcaneus (heel bone)
There are over ___ muscles in the human body
What do the muscles do? What must happen for them to do this?
They allow the skeleton to move. To cause movement both ends of each muscle must be attached to bone
There are 2 types of attachment of bone to muscle. What are they?
Origin or proximal attachment
Insertion or distal attachment
Origin or proximal attachment
The attachment close to the center of the body
Insertion or distal
The attachment away from the centre of the body
There are muscles posterior, lateral and anterior to the neck or cervical region
What do the neck muscles do?
Maintain the position in which the head sits on the 1st cervical vertebra (atlas)
ie. they hold up our head
Also permit a wide range of movement
Trapezius - upper fibers
Important lateral neck muscles
Acting alone, tilt the head to the same side
Together,, they assist in neck extension
There are _____ muscles and ______ muscles that act to hold the pectoral girdle to the chest wall
Anterior and posterior
What are the 4 anterior muscles that hold the pectoral girdle to the chest wall?
1. PECTORALIS MAJOR
What are the 5 posterior neck muscles that hold the pectoral girdle to the chest wall?
What is the anterior muscle that attaches the scapula to the humerus and act across the shoulder joint?
What are the 4 posterior muscles that attaches the scapula to the humerus and act across the shoulder joint?
What is the lateral muscle that attaches the scapula to the humerus and act across the shoulder joint?
What are the two parts to the anterior compartment of the muscles of the arms?
1. Biceps brachii
What do the biceps brachii attach to?
Proximal my to the voracious process of the scapulac (short head) and the glenoid fossa (long head)
Didt ally to the proximal part of the radius movements of the arm
Flexor of the elbow joint
Supinatir of the forearm
The biceps brachii allow the radius to turn ______
The biceps brachii are involved in:
A elbow flexion and supination of the forearm
B elbow extension and pronation of the forearm
Elbow flexion and supination of the forearm
What does the brachialis attach to?
Proximal to the anterior surface of the humerus
Dismally to the coton lid process of the ulna
The brachialis attaches on the _____ and the biceps brachii attach on the ____
Ulna and radius
What movements do the brachialis give the arms?
Powerful flexor of the elbow joint
It works along with the biceps brachii
What is the muscle in the posterior compartment of the muscles of the arm?
Where do they triceps brachii attach?
Proximal my to the humerus (medial and lateral head)
Dis tally to the olecranon process of the ulna (together with the long head)
What movement does the tricep brachii give the arm?
What parts of the arm do forearm muscles act on?
Elbow wrist and digits
What are the 2 muscles of the forearm?
Flexor pronate group
Extensor supinatir group
Flexor pronator group
Attached to the medial epicondylitis of the humerus
Attached on medial side and lead down to forearm
Extensor supinatir group
Attached to lateral epicondylitis of the humerus
Attach on the lateral side and cause supination
Anterior muscles of the pelvic girdle?
Sits in lumbar spine
Attached on the upper femur
Iliac is is the lower portion
Dias is the upper medial portion
They work together
Major function is to flex the hip
Posterior and lateral muscles of the pelvic girdle
Lateral or external rotators of the hip (6 little muscles)
What are the 3 gluteal muscles?
Largest of the 3 gluteus muscles
Principal extensor of the hip
Gluteus medius and minimus
Assist in hip extension
Abduct the hip
What is another name for the medial compartment of the thigh muscles?
What are the muscles of the groin area?
1. Pectinseus (1st from top)
2. Gracilis (bottom)
-adductor longus (3rd from the top)
-adductor brevis (2nd from the top)
-adductor Magnus (2nd from the bottom)
Remember in order alphabet, B first then L then M
What is the primary action of the adductors in the groin area?
To addict the thigh towards the midline
These muscles tightens up when you lunge from one side to the other
What are the two muscles of the anterior compartment of the thighs?
SARTORIUS & QUADRICEPS
Longest muscle in the body
Biggest function is knee extension
- rectus femoris
- vastus lateralis- outside
- vastus intermediate
- vastus medial - inside
SARTORIUS and rectus femoris also help flex at the _____
What are the 3 muscles of the posterior compartment of the thighs?
Semitendinosus - thick
Semi membranous - fibrous
Where do the hamstrings attach?
Proximaly to the ischil tuberosity
Distally biceps femoris to the head of the fibula and the semitendenosous and semimembranosous to the tibia
The hamstrings flex ______ and extend at _____
The knee and extend at the hip
Attached to the front side of the tibia
Attaches to the back side of the tibia
Flexes knee and extends hip
What are the 3 muscles of the anterior compartment of the legs?
EXTENSOR HALLUCIS LONGUS
Main muscle involved with dorsi flexion
EXTENSOR HALLUCIS LONGUS
Goes down to the big toe and causes it to come up
Goes down to digits of the foot and causes the toes to come up
What are the 2 muscles of the lateral compartment of the legs?
Function is to evert the foot
Attached to the styloid of the 5th metatarsals
PERONEUS LONGUS and PERONEUS BREVIS proximally attach to the lateral surface of _______. They dismally attach to ______.
The tibia and the foot
What is the movement of the PERONEUS LONGUS and the PERONEUS BREVIS?
Ever gets of the sole of the foot
What are the 2 muscles of the superficial group of the posterior compartment of the legs?
Has 2 proximal heads
Proximal unattached to the medial and lateral epicondyles of the distal femur
Proximaly attaches to head proximal ends of tibia and fibula
Called this because it looks like a fillet fish (sole)
Gastrocnemius and soleus come together to form an _________ tendon
Achilles' tendon attaches to _______
What are the principal flexors of the ankle?
Gastrocnemius and soleus
What are the 3 muscles of the deep group of the posterior compartment in the legs?
2.flexor digitoxin Longus
3.flexor Hallucis longus
What is the primary function of the 3 deep group muscles?
Primary function is flexion of the toes
Assist in plantar flexion of the ankle
What are the 3 obliques of the abdomen?
What are the functions of the oblique muscles?
Lateral bending of the abdomen
Rotation of the abdomen
Extension of the abdomen during forced inspiration
Allow the development of a pregnant uterus
Contract to help expel fecal contents from the rectum