Chapter 15 - Growth and Development Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 15 - Growth and Development Deck (61)
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1

what are 3 important influences that affect individual growth and development?

1) early exposure to physical activities
2) critical periods
3) readiness

2

early development of what 5 things is essential for growth and development?

balance, coordination, strength, flexibility and endurance

3

critical periods

times of particular sensitivity to environmental stimuli

4

what affects the potential for optimal development?

the presence or absence of appropriate stimuli at this critical period

5

true or false: optimal development is quite early in development

true

6

readiness

implies that the individual is prepared or ready, to acquire a particular behaviour or skill

7

performance requires what 4 needs?

1) desire to perform
2) information
3) ability
4) acquisition of physical characteristics

8

what are the 3 stages of growth and development?

1) infancy
2) childhood
3) adolescence

9

what age category is infancy in?

birth to 1 year

10

true or false: growth is a slow process in infancy

FALSE: infancy is a period of rapid growth

11

are males or females usually heavier and taller at birth?

males

12

what age category is childhood?

1 year to 13 years

13

what are the 3 divisions of childhood and what ages are each?

1) early childhood (1-6)
2) mid-childhood (6-10)
3) late-childhood (10-13)

14

list 5 features of early childhood

1) gradual loss of "baby fat"
2) girls lose less fat than boys
3) rapid growth but not as rapid as infancy
4) quite flexible
5) muscle development while at play

15

list 2 features of mid-childhood

1) slower, more constant growth
2) improved coordination and motor functioning

16

list 6 features of late childhood

1) increased rate of growth
2) fat deposition just prior to adolescent growth spurt
3) individual differences in maturation
4) development of the reproductive system
5) appearance of secondary sex characteristics
6) redistribution of body weight

17

when does fat deposition just prior to adolescent growth spurt occur in girls? boys?

girls = 9-10
boys = 11-12

18

true or false: during late childhood boys muscle tissue increases and their body fat decreases while girls body fat slightly increases

true

19

what may account for females ability to achieve world class status across many sports?

earlier onset of maturation in females

20

who is tara lipinski?

the youngest US ladies' figure skating champion (14 when she won)

21

what age category is adolescence?

14-20

22

what are 4 features of adolescence?

1) following puberty
2) ends with onset of adulthood
3) obvious differences in physical growth cease with the end of the adolescence time period
4) the variability of body types (somatotypes) become more evident

23

what are the 3 somatotypes?

1) ectomorph
2) mesomorph
3) endomorph

24

true or false: everyone is one specific somatotype

FALSE: usually individuals are a combination of these types

25

when do external social pressures for the "ideal" body type tend to occur?

during adolescence

26

adolescence is combined with what 3 type of changes that occur during the period?

physical, hormonal and psychological

27

true or false: the adolescent growth spurt occurs approx. 2 years earlier in girls than in boys

true

28

true or false: there is a significant difference between female and male physique prior to puberty

FALSE: prior to puberty, there is not a significant difference between female and male physique

29

true or false: within each of the life stages, there is individuality and variability in growth and development among people

true

30

what are 4 factors affecting growth and development?

1) heredity
2) nutrition
3) socioeconomic status
4) exercise