Chapter 15 - Growth and Development Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 15 - Growth and Development Deck (61):
1

what are 3 important influences that affect individual growth and development?

1) early exposure to physical activities
2) critical periods
3) readiness

2

early development of what 5 things is essential for growth and development?

balance, coordination, strength, flexibility and endurance

3

critical periods

times of particular sensitivity to environmental stimuli

4

what affects the potential for optimal development?

the presence or absence of appropriate stimuli at this critical period

5

true or false: optimal development is quite early in development

true

6

readiness

implies that the individual is prepared or ready, to acquire a particular behaviour or skill

7

performance requires what 4 needs?

1) desire to perform
2) information
3) ability
4) acquisition of physical characteristics

8

what are the 3 stages of growth and development?

1) infancy
2) childhood
3) adolescence

9

what age category is infancy in?

birth to 1 year

10

true or false: growth is a slow process in infancy

FALSE: infancy is a period of rapid growth

11

are males or females usually heavier and taller at birth?

males

12

what age category is childhood?

1 year to 13 years

13

what are the 3 divisions of childhood and what ages are each?

1) early childhood (1-6)
2) mid-childhood (6-10)
3) late-childhood (10-13)

14

list 5 features of early childhood

1) gradual loss of "baby fat"
2) girls lose less fat than boys
3) rapid growth but not as rapid as infancy
4) quite flexible
5) muscle development while at play

15

list 2 features of mid-childhood

1) slower, more constant growth
2) improved coordination and motor functioning

16

list 6 features of late childhood

1) increased rate of growth
2) fat deposition just prior to adolescent growth spurt
3) individual differences in maturation
4) development of the reproductive system
5) appearance of secondary sex characteristics
6) redistribution of body weight

17

when does fat deposition just prior to adolescent growth spurt occur in girls? boys?

girls = 9-10
boys = 11-12

18

true or false: during late childhood boys muscle tissue increases and their body fat decreases while girls body fat slightly increases

true

19

what may account for females ability to achieve world class status across many sports?

earlier onset of maturation in females

20

who is tara lipinski?

the youngest US ladies' figure skating champion (14 when she won)

21

what age category is adolescence?

14-20

22

what are 4 features of adolescence?

1) following puberty
2) ends with onset of adulthood
3) obvious differences in physical growth cease with the end of the adolescence time period
4) the variability of body types (somatotypes) become more evident

23

what are the 3 somatotypes?

1) ectomorph
2) mesomorph
3) endomorph

24

true or false: everyone is one specific somatotype

FALSE: usually individuals are a combination of these types

25

when do external social pressures for the "ideal" body type tend to occur?

during adolescence

26

adolescence is combined with what 3 type of changes that occur during the period?

physical, hormonal and psychological

27

true or false: the adolescent growth spurt occurs approx. 2 years earlier in girls than in boys

true

28

true or false: there is a significant difference between female and male physique prior to puberty

FALSE: prior to puberty, there is not a significant difference between female and male physique

29

true or false: within each of the life stages, there is individuality and variability in growth and development among people

true

30

what are 4 factors affecting growth and development?

1) heredity
2) nutrition
3) socioeconomic status
4) exercise

31

heredity

genetic information that is passed on from generation to generation

32

what are genes also affected by?

environmental factors

33

what could malnutrition prevent?

could prevent an individual from growing to their maximum potential height

34

true or false: adequate nutrients are essential for growth and development

true

35

______ and _______ are primarily used for energy

carbohydrates and fats

36

_______ contribute to growth and repair of body tissues, including muscle

proteins

37

______, ________, and _______ are also essential for various functions and reactions that occur in the body

vitamins, minerals and water

38

_______ can delay growth

malnutrition/undernourishment

39

true or false: undernourishment only exists in countries with little food supplies

FALSE: undernourishment exists even in countries with abundant food supplies

40

what 2 things is body size related to?

1) socioeconomic status
2) nutrition

41

what 4 things does socio-economic status affect?

1) income
2) education
3) time
4) availability

42

what are 3 factors other than socio-economic status that may contribute to the differences observed in growth and development among individuals?

1) lower levels of stress
2) better sleeping patterns
3) regular exercise

43

what are 3 positives of exercise and bone development?

1) regular exercise tends to increase the diameter and density of bone
2) increased strength and durability
3) increased length of non-weight bearing bones such as the arms

44

what are 2 negatives of exercise and bone development?

1) overuse injuries can be incurred by young children who over-train
2) too much strain on a bone during a period of growth can lead to osteochondrosis

45

osterochondrosis

the derangement of the normal process of bone growth

46

active children and teenagers show what 3 things?

1) an increase in lean body mass
2) a decrease in percent body fat
3) muscle hypertrophy with exercise

47

what can pressure by parents and coaches do?

hinder the development of an active lifestyle and cause stress

48

perceptual motor development

the use of movement activities to enhance academic or intellectual performance

49

who developed the perceptual motor development theory?

Kephart - over 30 years ago

50

what did kephart believe?

that learning deficiencies resulted from the inability to properly integrate present stimuli with the stored information concerning past stimuli

51

what does kepharts theory suggest?

suggests that participation in basic forms of movement may improve reading and writing skills

52

stature

refers to a persons standing height

53

body length is measured in infants while the child is ____

supine

54

true or false: there is little difference in average length between males and females at birth

true
boys = 50.5 cm
girls = 49.9 cm

55

by then end of the first year how long are boys? girls?

boys = 75 cm
girls = 74.1 cm

56

true or false: after 2 years, stature increases more slowly, until adolescence

true

57

how much do girls grow per year on average? boys?

girls = 8cm/year avg
boys = 10 cm/year avg

58

when is peak height achieved in boys? girls?

boys = 18
girls = 16.5

59

usually there is no change in stature after age ___

30

60

why does height sometimes begin to decrease after age 45?

due to a degeneration of inter vertebral disks

61

true or false: from birth until adolescence, boys are much heavier than girls

FALSE: little difference in body weigh exists between boys and girls from birth until adolescence