Flashcards in Chapter 15 - Growth and Development Deck (61)
what are 3 important influences that affect individual growth and development?
1) early exposure to physical activities
2) critical periods
early development of what 5 things is essential for growth and development?
balance, coordination, strength, flexibility and endurance
times of particular sensitivity to environmental stimuli
what affects the potential for optimal development?
the presence or absence of appropriate stimuli at this critical period
true or false: optimal development is quite early in development
implies that the individual is prepared or ready, to acquire a particular behaviour or skill
performance requires what 4 needs?
1) desire to perform
4) acquisition of physical characteristics
what are the 3 stages of growth and development?
what age category is infancy in?
birth to 1 year
true or false: growth is a slow process in infancy
FALSE: infancy is a period of rapid growth
are males or females usually heavier and taller at birth?
what age category is childhood?
1 year to 13 years
what are the 3 divisions of childhood and what ages are each?
1) early childhood (1-6)
2) mid-childhood (6-10)
3) late-childhood (10-13)
list 5 features of early childhood
1) gradual loss of "baby fat"
2) girls lose less fat than boys
3) rapid growth but not as rapid as infancy
4) quite flexible
5) muscle development while at play
list 2 features of mid-childhood
1) slower, more constant growth
2) improved coordination and motor functioning
list 6 features of late childhood
1) increased rate of growth
2) fat deposition just prior to adolescent growth spurt
3) individual differences in maturation
4) development of the reproductive system
5) appearance of secondary sex characteristics
6) redistribution of body weight
when does fat deposition just prior to adolescent growth spurt occur in girls? boys?
girls = 9-10
boys = 11-12
true or false: during late childhood boys muscle tissue increases and their body fat decreases while girls body fat slightly increases
what may account for females ability to achieve world class status across many sports?
earlier onset of maturation in females
who is tara lipinski?
the youngest US ladies' figure skating champion (14 when she won)
what age category is adolescence?
what are 4 features of adolescence?
1) following puberty
2) ends with onset of adulthood
3) obvious differences in physical growth cease with the end of the adolescence time period
4) the variability of body types (somatotypes) become more evident
what are the 3 somatotypes?
true or false: everyone is one specific somatotype
FALSE: usually individuals are a combination of these types
when do external social pressures for the "ideal" body type tend to occur?
adolescence is combined with what 3 type of changes that occur during the period?
physical, hormonal and psychological
true or false: the adolescent growth spurt occurs approx. 2 years earlier in girls than in boys
true or false: there is a significant difference between female and male physique prior to puberty
FALSE: prior to puberty, there is not a significant difference between female and male physique
true or false: within each of the life stages, there is individuality and variability in growth and development among people
what are 4 factors affecting growth and development?
3) socioeconomic status
genetic information that is passed on from generation to generation
what are genes also affected by?
what could malnutrition prevent?
could prevent an individual from growing to their maximum potential height
true or false: adequate nutrients are essential for growth and development
______ and _______ are primarily used for energy
carbohydrates and fats
_______ contribute to growth and repair of body tissues, including muscle
______, ________, and _______ are also essential for various functions and reactions that occur in the body
vitamins, minerals and water
_______ can delay growth
true or false: undernourishment only exists in countries with little food supplies
FALSE: undernourishment exists even in countries with abundant food supplies
what 2 things is body size related to?
1) socioeconomic status
what 4 things does socio-economic status affect?
what are 3 factors other than socio-economic status that may contribute to the differences observed in growth and development among individuals?
1) lower levels of stress
2) better sleeping patterns
3) regular exercise
what are 3 positives of exercise and bone development?
1) regular exercise tends to increase the diameter and density of bone
2) increased strength and durability
3) increased length of non-weight bearing bones such as the arms
what are 2 negatives of exercise and bone development?
1) overuse injuries can be incurred by young children who over-train
2) too much strain on a bone during a period of growth can lead to osteochondrosis
the derangement of the normal process of bone growth
active children and teenagers show what 3 things?
1) an increase in lean body mass
2) a decrease in percent body fat
3) muscle hypertrophy with exercise
what can pressure by parents and coaches do?
hinder the development of an active lifestyle and cause stress
perceptual motor development
the use of movement activities to enhance academic or intellectual performance
who developed the perceptual motor development theory?
Kephart - over 30 years ago
what did kephart believe?
that learning deficiencies resulted from the inability to properly integrate present stimuli with the stored information concerning past stimuli
what does kepharts theory suggest?
suggests that participation in basic forms of movement may improve reading and writing skills
refers to a persons standing height
body length is measured in infants while the child is ____
true or false: there is little difference in average length between males and females at birth
boys = 50.5 cm
girls = 49.9 cm
by then end of the first year how long are boys? girls?
boys = 75 cm
girls = 74.1 cm
true or false: after 2 years, stature increases more slowly, until adolescence
how much do girls grow per year on average? boys?
girls = 8cm/year avg
boys = 10 cm/year avg
when is peak height achieved in boys? girls?
boys = 18
girls = 16.5
usually there is no change in stature after age ___
why does height sometimes begin to decrease after age 45?
due to a degeneration of inter vertebral disks