Chapter 5 - Energy For Muscular Activity Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5 - Energy For Muscular Activity Deck (69):
1

what are the learning objectives of energy for muscular activity?

1) to develop an awareness of the basic chemical process that the body uses to produce energy in the muscles
2) to develop an understanding of the body's three main energy systems
3) to introduce the effect of training and exercise on the energy system

2

energy in the human body is derived from the breakdown of complex nutrients such as? (3 things)

carbohydrates, fats and proteins

3

the end result of the breakdown of complex nutrients such as carbs, fats and proteins is production of the _________ ________ (ATP) molecule

Adenosine Triphosphate molecule

4

ATP provides ______ necessary for body functions

energy

5

can the system work without ATP? why?

no because it maintains the body temperature and it aids in digestion

6

another name for ATP breakdown is?

Hydrolysis

7

ATP + H2O = ___ + Energy + P

ADP

8

what are the 3 steps to ATP breakdown?

1) Hydrolysis of the unstable phosphate groups of ATP molecule by H2O
2) Phosphate molecule (P) is released from ATP (ATP--> ADP)
3) Energy is released (38-42kJ, or 9-10kcal/mol ATP)

9

Phosphorylation

Molecule + P = Energy for muscle contraction

10

Phosphorylation

1) Energy released by ATP turnover can be used by the body when a free P group is transfered to another molecule

11

ATP resynthesis

ADP + Energy + P = ATP

12

Steps to ATP resynthesis

1) Initial stores of ATP in the muscles are used up very quickly and ATP must be regenerated
2) ATP is formed by recombination of ADP and P
Regeneration of aTP requires energy (this energy comes from breakdown of food molecules)

13

What are the 3 energy systems?

1) the high energy phosphate system
2) the anaerobic glycolytic system
3) the aerobic oxidative system

14

What is the primary energy source of the high energy phosphate system?

stored ATP, CP (Creatine Phosphate)

15

What is the duration of activity for the high energy phosphate system?

7-12 seconds

16

what sporting events involve the high energy phosphate system?

weight lifting, high jump, long jump, 100m run, 25m swim

17

What are the advantages to the high energy phosphate system?

produce very large amount of energy in a short amount of time

18

what are the limiting factors of the high energy phosphate system?

initial concentration of high energy phosphates (ATP, CP)

19

what are the 2 ways of training the high energy phosphate system?

1) interval training
2) sprint training

20

list 4 points about interval training.

- 20% increase in CP (creatine phosphate) stores
- no change in ATP stores
- increase in ATPase function (ATP ADP+P)
- increase in CPK (creatine phosphokinase) function (NB: CPK breaks down CP molecule and allows ATP resynthesis)

21

list 2 points about sprint training.

- increase in CP stores up to 40%
- 100% increase in resting ATP stores

22

What is the primary energy source of the Anaerobic Glycolytic System?

Stored glycogen, blood glucose

23

What is the duration of activity for the Anaerobic Glycolytic System?

12seconds-3 minutes

24

what sporting events involve the Anaerobic glycolytic system?

800m run, 200m swim, downhill ski racing, 1500 speed skating

25

what are the advantages to the anaerobic glycolytic system?

ability to produce energy under conditions of inadequate oxygen

26

what are the limiting factors of the anaerobic glycolytic system?

lactic acid build up, H+ ions build up (decrease of pH)

27

Glycolysis

a biochemical process that releases energy in the form of ATP from glycogen and glucose

28

what type of process is glycolysis?

anaerobic

29

what are the 2 products of glycolysis (per molecule of glycogen)?

- 2 molecules of ATP
- 2 molecules of pyruvic acid

30

what is the by-product of glycolysis?

2 molecules of lactic acid

31

Anaerobic Threshold

- the exercise intensity level at which lactic acid begins to accumulate within the blood

32

What is the term for the point during exercise where the person begins to feel discomfort and burning sensation in their muscles?

Anaerobic threshold

33

_____ acid is used to store pyruvate and hydrogen ions until they can be processed by the aerobic system

Lactic acid

34

the anaerobic glycolytic system starts when...

- the reserves of high energy phosphate compounds fall to a low level
- the rate of glycolysis is high and there is a buildup of pyruvic acid

35

when the body goes into shock it produces ______?

lactic acid

36

when there is a high level of lactic acid in the body what happens?

the anaerobic threshold doesn't allow function

37

the primary source of substrates for the anaerobic energy system is ________.

carbohydrates

38

carbohydrates

primary dietary source of glucose
primary energy fuels for, brain, muscles, heart and liver

39

what is the effect of training on the Anerobic Glycolytic system?

rate of lactic acid accumulation is decreased in the trained individual

40

the rate of lactic acid accumulation can be decreased by what 2 things?

1) reducing the rate of lactate production
2) increasing the rate of lactate elimination

41

what is the way to reduce the rate of lactate production?

increase in the effectiveness of the aerobic oxidative system

42

what is the way to increase the rate of lactate elimination?

- increased rate of lactic acid diffusion from active muscles
increased muscle blood flow
increased ability to metabolize lactate in the heart, liver and in non-working muscle

43

what is the primary energy source of the aerobic oxidative system?

glycogen, glucose, fats and proteins

44

what is the duration of activity for the aerobic oxidative system?

>3 minutes

45

what sporting events involve the aerobic oxidative system?

walking, jogging, swimming, walking up stairs

46

what are the advantages of the aerobic oxidative system?

large output of energy over a long period of time, removal of lactic acid

47

what are the limiting factors of the aerobic oxidative system?

long function, maximum blood flow, oxygen availability, excess energy demands

48

what is the most important energy system in the body?

the aerobic oxidative system

49

in the aerobic oxidative system, do blood lactate levels remain relatively low or relatively high?

relatively low (3-6mmol/L blood)

50

mitochondria

little energy power houses

51

what are the 2 pathways of the oxidative phosphorylation system?

Krebs cycle and Electron Transport Chain

52

oxidative phosphorylation system

biochemical process used to resynthesize ATP by combing ADP and P in the presence of oxygen

53

where does oxidative phosphorylation system take place?

in the mitochondria (contains enzymes, co-enzymes)

54

what is the energy yield from 1 molecule of glucose?

36 ATP molecules

55

Energy yield from 1 molecule of fat is up to?

169 ATP molecules

56

what are the by-products of the oxidative phosphorylation system reaction?

carbon dioxide, water

57

Cori Cycle

lactic acid is taken to the liver to metabolized back in pyruvic acid and then glucose

58

the power of the aerobic system

evaluated by meauring the maximal volume of oxygen that can be consumed per kilogram of mass in a given amount of time (this measure is called aerobic power or VO2 max (ml/min/kg)

59

What are 3 factors that contribute to high aerobic power?

1) arterial oxygen content (CaO2)
2) Cardiac Output (Q = HR x stroke volume)
3) Tissue oxygen extraction (a-vO2, diff)

60

What are the 2 substrates for the aerobic system?

Carbohydrates (glycogen and glucose) and fats (triglycerides and fatty acids)

61

list 5 food items you could find fat in.

dairy products, meats, table fats, nuts and some vegetables

62

what is the bodies largest store of energy?

fats

63

other than energy storage what are 3 other major functions fat serves to do.

1) cushion the vital organs
2) protect the body from cold
3) serve to transport vitamins

64

how many calories is 1 gram of fat equal to?

9 calories of energy

65

how many calories is 1 gram of protein equal to?

4 calories

66

how many calories is 1 gram of carbohydrate equal to?

4 calories

67

what is the most effective method of training?

endurance training

68

what does endurance training do? (list 4)

- increases vacularization within muscles
- increases number and size of mitochondria within the muscle fibres
- increases the activity of enzymes (Krebs cycle)
- preferential use of fats over glycogen during exercise

69

how much doe endurance training increase the max aerobic power of a sedentary individual by?

15-25% regardless of age