Chapter 5 - Energy For Muscular Activity Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5 - Energy For Muscular Activity Deck (69)
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1

what are the learning objectives of energy for muscular activity?

1) to develop an awareness of the basic chemical process that the body uses to produce energy in the muscles
2) to develop an understanding of the body's three main energy systems
3) to introduce the effect of training and exercise on the energy system

2

energy in the human body is derived from the breakdown of complex nutrients such as? (3 things)

carbohydrates, fats and proteins

3

the end result of the breakdown of complex nutrients such as carbs, fats and proteins is production of the _________ ________ (ATP) molecule

Adenosine Triphosphate molecule

4

ATP provides ______ necessary for body functions

energy

5

can the system work without ATP? why?

no because it maintains the body temperature and it aids in digestion

6

another name for ATP breakdown is?

Hydrolysis

7

ATP + H2O = ___ + Energy + P

ADP

8

what are the 3 steps to ATP breakdown?

1) Hydrolysis of the unstable phosphate groups of ATP molecule by H2O
2) Phosphate molecule (P) is released from ATP (ATP--> ADP)
3) Energy is released (38-42kJ, or 9-10kcal/mol ATP)

9

Phosphorylation

Molecule + P = Energy for muscle contraction

10

Phosphorylation

1) Energy released by ATP turnover can be used by the body when a free P group is transfered to another molecule

11

ATP resynthesis

ADP + Energy + P = ATP

12

Steps to ATP resynthesis

1) Initial stores of ATP in the muscles are used up very quickly and ATP must be regenerated
2) ATP is formed by recombination of ADP and P
Regeneration of aTP requires energy (this energy comes from breakdown of food molecules)

13

What are the 3 energy systems?

1) the high energy phosphate system
2) the anaerobic glycolytic system
3) the aerobic oxidative system

14

What is the primary energy source of the high energy phosphate system?

stored ATP, CP (Creatine Phosphate)

15

What is the duration of activity for the high energy phosphate system?

7-12 seconds

16

what sporting events involve the high energy phosphate system?

weight lifting, high jump, long jump, 100m run, 25m swim

17

What are the advantages to the high energy phosphate system?

produce very large amount of energy in a short amount of time

18

what are the limiting factors of the high energy phosphate system?

initial concentration of high energy phosphates (ATP, CP)

19

what are the 2 ways of training the high energy phosphate system?

1) interval training
2) sprint training

20

list 4 points about interval training.

- 20% increase in CP (creatine phosphate) stores
- no change in ATP stores
- increase in ATPase function (ATP ADP+P)
- increase in CPK (creatine phosphokinase) function (NB: CPK breaks down CP molecule and allows ATP resynthesis)

21

list 2 points about sprint training.

- increase in CP stores up to 40%
- 100% increase in resting ATP stores

22

What is the primary energy source of the Anaerobic Glycolytic System?

Stored glycogen, blood glucose

23

What is the duration of activity for the Anaerobic Glycolytic System?

12seconds-3 minutes

24

what sporting events involve the Anaerobic glycolytic system?

800m run, 200m swim, downhill ski racing, 1500 speed skating

25

what are the advantages to the anaerobic glycolytic system?

ability to produce energy under conditions of inadequate oxygen

26

what are the limiting factors of the anaerobic glycolytic system?

lactic acid build up, H+ ions build up (decrease of pH)

27

Glycolysis

a biochemical process that releases energy in the form of ATP from glycogen and glucose

28

what type of process is glycolysis?

anaerobic

29

what are the 2 products of glycolysis (per molecule of glycogen)?

- 2 molecules of ATP
- 2 molecules of pyruvic acid

30

what is the by-product of glycolysis?

2 molecules of lactic acid