Flashcards in Chapter 5 - Energy For Muscular Activity Deck (69)
what are the learning objectives of energy for muscular activity?
1) to develop an awareness of the basic chemical process that the body uses to produce energy in the muscles
2) to develop an understanding of the body's three main energy systems
3) to introduce the effect of training and exercise on the energy system
energy in the human body is derived from the breakdown of complex nutrients such as? (3 things)
carbohydrates, fats and proteins
the end result of the breakdown of complex nutrients such as carbs, fats and proteins is production of the _________ ________ (ATP) molecule
Adenosine Triphosphate molecule
ATP provides ______ necessary for body functions
can the system work without ATP? why?
no because it maintains the body temperature and it aids in digestion
another name for ATP breakdown is?
ATP + H2O = ___ + Energy + P
what are the 3 steps to ATP breakdown?
1) Hydrolysis of the unstable phosphate groups of ATP molecule by H2O
2) Phosphate molecule (P) is released from ATP (ATP--> ADP)
3) Energy is released (38-42kJ, or 9-10kcal/mol ATP)
Molecule + P = Energy for muscle contraction
1) Energy released by ATP turnover can be used by the body when a free P group is transfered to another molecule
ADP + Energy + P = ATP
Steps to ATP resynthesis
1) Initial stores of ATP in the muscles are used up very quickly and ATP must be regenerated
2) ATP is formed by recombination of ADP and P
Regeneration of aTP requires energy (this energy comes from breakdown of food molecules)
What are the 3 energy systems?
1) the high energy phosphate system
2) the anaerobic glycolytic system
3) the aerobic oxidative system
What is the primary energy source of the high energy phosphate system?
stored ATP, CP (Creatine Phosphate)
What is the duration of activity for the high energy phosphate system?
what sporting events involve the high energy phosphate system?
weight lifting, high jump, long jump, 100m run, 25m swim
What are the advantages to the high energy phosphate system?
produce very large amount of energy in a short amount of time
what are the limiting factors of the high energy phosphate system?
initial concentration of high energy phosphates (ATP, CP)
what are the 2 ways of training the high energy phosphate system?
1) interval training
2) sprint training
list 4 points about interval training.
- 20% increase in CP (creatine phosphate) stores
- no change in ATP stores
- increase in ATPase function (ATP ADP+P)
- increase in CPK (creatine phosphokinase) function (NB: CPK breaks down CP molecule and allows ATP resynthesis)
list 2 points about sprint training.
- increase in CP stores up to 40%
- 100% increase in resting ATP stores
What is the primary energy source of the Anaerobic Glycolytic System?
Stored glycogen, blood glucose
What is the duration of activity for the Anaerobic Glycolytic System?
what sporting events involve the Anaerobic glycolytic system?
800m run, 200m swim, downhill ski racing, 1500 speed skating
what are the advantages to the anaerobic glycolytic system?
ability to produce energy under conditions of inadequate oxygen
what are the limiting factors of the anaerobic glycolytic system?
lactic acid build up, H+ ions build up (decrease of pH)
a biochemical process that releases energy in the form of ATP from glycogen and glucose
what type of process is glycolysis?
what are the 2 products of glycolysis (per molecule of glycogen)?
- 2 molecules of ATP
- 2 molecules of pyruvic acid