Chapter 4 - Muscles At Work Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4 - Muscles At Work Deck (48):
0

What are the 2 forms and types of muscle contraction?

Static and dynamic

1

What is another name for static muscle contraction

Isometric contraction

2

Static muscle contraction

Nothing moves. There is internal force exerted against an external load

3

How much tension can be developed from static muscle contraction

High amounts because energy used from cross bridge activation is high

4

Give 3 examples of static muscle contraction:

Planks
Pushing against a stable wall
Pressing your hands together
Arm wrestling

5

Dynamic muscle contraction

Change in limb structure that the muscle is moving around. Muscle tension/force is exerted against an external load

6

Internal force is _____ than the external load in dynamic muscle contraction.

Greater

7

Auxotonic isotonic

A dynamic contraction. The tension required to move an external load varies while the mass of the load remains constant

8

The strength needed to perform a barbell curl depends on what 4 internal factors?

1) the athletes physique
2) the athletes leverage
3) the angle position of the limbs
4) the speed of the movement

9

Isokinetic

A dynamic contraction that involves a constant speed contraction against a pre-set resistance

10

Where does muscle strengthening occur for isokinetic muscle contraction?

At all joints

11

List 5 examples of isokinetic contraction:

1) CYBEX
2) KINCOM
3) LIDO
4) HydraGym
5) nautilus (controversial)

12

Concentric

Involves muscle shortening while tension is generated as it goes through a range of motion; usually termed flex ion

13

What is an example of concentric?

Moving the heel closer to the buttocks is concentric of the hamstring

14

Eccentric

Involves muscle lengthening while tension is generated as it goes through a range of motion; usually termed extension

15

Name an example of eccentric

Moving the heel away from the buttocks is eccentric of the hamstrings

16

If one muscle group is being used to describe concentric what needs to be used to describe eccentric?

The same muscle group

17

List 8 factors influencing the force and power of muscle contractions:

1) the individuals state of health
2) the individuals training status
3) joint angle
4) muscle cross sectional area
5) speed of movement
6) muscle fiber type
7) age
8) gender

18

Joint angle

The type of contraction and the force required to resist an external load change as the joint angle changes

19

What type of muscle contractions might be required for joint angle to occur?

Static dynamic concentric eccentric may all be required

20

Coordination between ______ and ______ muscles is required

Agonist and antagonist muscles

21

Maximal force is produced at a joint angle that corresponds to ______ _______ _____ interaction

Maximal cross bridge

22

Muscle cross sectional area

Body mass is positively correlated with strength, provided that the mass is primarily muscle tissue or lean mass

23

The larger the muscle cross sectional area the more _____ it can potentially generate

Force

24

Maximal strength

The ability to perform maximal voluntary muscular contractions in order to overcome powerful external resistances

25

One repition maximum (1RM)

The greatest force that can be exerted during one repition for a given contraction of muscles

26

What activities are examples where greater absolute strength is necessary?

Weightlifting and track and field events

27

Amount of force generated over time gives us _____

Power

28

Relative strength

The performance of athletes classified by weight or athletes who much overcome their own body mass, depends on the proportion of maximal strength to body mass

29

Relative strength = _____/_____

Maximal strength/ body mass

30

As speed of movement _______ the force a muscle can generate _______

Increases, decreases

31

Speed of movement compromises cross bridges dice they cannot ______ and ______ fast enough

Couple and uncouple

32

Muscular endurance

The ability of a muscle to exert force as then do more and more. Important in acyclic events that involve strength and endurance including gymnastics wrestling icing downhill skiing etc.

33

What is the number of repitions that can be performed against a high resistance dependent on?

Maximal strength

34

The greater an athletes maximal strength the greater the muscular ________ at a particular load

Endurance

35

Endurance

The number of repitions against resistance in a certain amount of time

36

Vigorous cardiovascular training can lead to?

An associated decrease in the diameter of fast twitch fibers

37

Increased endurance can be associated with?

Decrease muscle strength as a result of a corresponding decrease in muscle volume

38

Activities that are solely endurance will see a loss in ______

Fast twitch muscle fibers

39

Activities that are solely maximum will hve no _____

Speed

40

What does repetitive maximal strength decrease? What does it increas?

Decrease endurance, increases strength

41

The greater the fast twitch fiber content of a muscle....

1) the greater the force output
2) the greater the over speed of contraction
3) the greater the fatigabiliry (decreased endurance) when the muscle has been maximally activated

42

The greater the slow twitch fiber content of a muscle...

1) the lower the force producing capacity
2) the slower the contraction speed
3) the greater the endurance characteristics of the muscle

43

What does she affect

Muscle force output

44

What is there a loss of with age

Fast twitch fibers

45

Apoptosis

Programmed cell death

46

Sarcopenia

The medical term that describes muscle loss

47

What is the differences between male and females mainly due to?

The difference that exists in muscle volume