Flashcards in Chapter 8 - Sport Injuries Deck (103)
what are the 4 types of tissue?
epithelial, muscle, connective and nervous
under a load, tissue experiences ________
under a load tissue experiences deformation
how can deformation be visualized?
deformation can be visualized through the load deformation curve
point where tissue stretches like an elastic band (stretch it, and it goes back with no change)
what is the tissues response to training loads if the training load is less than or equal to the elastic limit?
- micro-failure --> making of new tissue
- positive training effect
what is the tissues response to training loads if the training load is higher than the elastic limit?
- permanent failure
- injury (scar tissue)
what are the 5 forces acting on tissue?
tension, compression, bending, shearing, and torsion
creates a shearing force between the opposing force against the structure
give an example of shearing
blister = caused by the foot rubbing/shearing against the shoe
give an example of tension
when you bend the knee, the tensile force/load is on the hamstring
does tension occur on the concentric or eccentric load?
mostly on the eccentric load
2 part force: compression and tension occur
when is a time we often compress the bones of the legs and feet
what is the name of a fracture from torsion
- received by patient from a health care professional
- promotes healing
- improves quality of injured tissue
- allows quicker return to activity
- therapists restoration of injured tissue and patients participation
- individualized for each athlete
what are the 3 healing phases in order?
1) Inflammatory Response Phase
2) Fibroblastic Repair Phase
3) Maturation-Remodelling Phase
how long does the inflammatory response phase take?
how long does fibroblastic repair phase take?
how long does the maturation-remodelling phase take?
when does inflammation begin?
same time as injury
what are 5 signs of inflammation?
-loss of function
What 5 things do you have to do for inflammation?
-decreases swelling, bleeding, pain and spasms.
true or false: cold gets rid of swelling
FALSE: cold does NOT get rid of swelling, it just helps to reduce/manage pain
does compression make swelling go away?
compression decreases swelling but does not make it go away
what does elevation do for inflammation?
it reduces the amount of accumulation on the other end to decrease swelling
4 things that happen during the Fibroblastic Repair Phase are?
1) repair ad scar formation
2) granulation tissue fills the gap
3) collagen fibres are deposited by fibroblasts
4) signs seen in the phase1 subside
what 3 things can you do during the fibroblastic repair phase to help with healing?
1) rehab-specific exercises
2) manual massage therapy and ultrasound
3) protective taping and bracing
what do rehab-specific exercise do?
restore range of motion and strength
what does manual massage therapy and ultrasound do?
help break down scar
remodelling or realigning of the scar tissue
what can you do to help repair during the maturation-remodelling phase?
more aggressive stretching and strengthening to organize the scar tissue along the lines of tensile stress
natures warning system
medical term for bruising
where does a bruise come from
compressing force crushing tissue
what does a bruise look like
discolouration and swelling
abnormal bone formation in a severe contusion
when is a contusion life threatening?
if the tissue involved is a vital organ
what is the term for a contusion of the brain?
method of healing contusions
Pressure, Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation
how long is price needed for?
tendon or muscle tissue is stretched or torn
ligament or the joint capsule is stretched or torn
what are the 3 grades of sprains and strains?
Grade 1 Strain/Sprain
slightly stretched or torn; few muscle fibres
Grade 2 Strain/Sprain
moderately stretched or torn, more muscle fibres
Grade 3 Strain/Sprain
-E.g., ACL tear
what are 5 common places for strains?
Quadriceps, Adductors, Hip Flexors, Hamstrings, Rotator cuffs
what is the most frequent strain?
what is the mechanism of a hamstring strain?
-rapid contraction in a lengthened position
-E.g., sprinting and running
Hamstring strains are due to what?
what is the most common ankle sprain?
lateral ankle sprain (inversion)
list 3 symptoms of ankle sprains
1) rapid swelling
2) point tenderness
3) loss of function
rehabilitation for ankle sprains
- decreases reoccurrence
- incorporation of balance exercises
great enough force pushes the joint beyond its normal anatomical limits
subluxation (partial dislocation)
-when supporting structures (e.g., ligaments) are stretched or torn enough
-bony surfaces partially separate
where is the most common dislocation?
true or false: dislocations can become chronic
what are the 2 categories of shoulder dislocation?
what are 3 symptoms of dislocation of shoulder?
1) swelling, numbness, pain, weakness, bruising
2) capsule and/or rotator cuff tears
3) brachial plexus injury
what is required to relocated head of humerus back to glenoid fossa?
require medical treatment to relocate the head of the humerus back to the glenoid fossa
what are the 4 types of fractures?
1) Simple fracture
2) compound fracture
3) Stress fracture
4) avulsion fracture
stays within the surrounding soft tissue
protrudes from the skin
which type of fracture has a high potential for infection?
results from repeated low magnitude loads
involves tendon or ligament pulling small chip of bone
what type of fracture is common on bad ligament sprains
injury to the head
mechanism of concussion
-violent shaking or jarring action of the head
-brain bounces against the inside of the skull
list 2 symptoms of concussions
-temporary loss of normal brain function
true or false: there is something called a minor concussion and you can just shake off concussions
FALSE: there is no such thing as "minor concussion" and "shaking off"
Overuse injuries are do to what?
-repeated and accumulated microtrauma
overuse injuries result from?
-too much training
-type of training
inflammation of tendon as a result of a small tear in the tendon
list 3 symptoms of tendonitis
-pain (aggravated by movement)
-stiffness near joint
tennis elbow affects what?
what are the contributing factors to tennis elbow?
-excessive forearm pronation and wrist flexion
-gripping racquet too tightly
-improper size grip
-excessive string tension
-excessive racquet weight
-hitting ball off centre
golfer's and little league elbow
golfer's and little league elbow affects what?
tendons of forearm flexors
what could golfer's and little league elbow result in?
may result in collateral ligament and ulnar nerve injury and may affect medial humeral growth plate in young children (little league elbow)
what does jumpers knee affect?
affects infrapatellar ligament
what is jumpers knee caused by?
-repetitive eccentric knee actions
-eccentric load during jump preparation>>body weight
-happens from the landing (huge eccentric load on quadriceps)
inflammation of the bursae
tiny fluid-filled sacs that lubricate and cushion pressure points between bone and tendons
bursitis results from what?
results from overuse and stress - age is also a factor
where is bursitis most common?
shoulder elbow and hip
what aggravates the inflammation of bursitis?
inflammation and pain aggravated by movement and direct pressure
-excess movement of the humeral head + lack of space
-inflammation of bursae or rotator cuff tendon
what is the result of muscle imbalances in shoulder muscles?
-weak shoulder depressors
-strong shoulder elevators
results from repeated low-magnitude forces
1) small disruption of the outer bone layer
2) weakened bone
3) cortical bone fracture
true or false: Stress fracture is a shin splint
FALSE: stress fracture is NOT a shin splint
pain along inside tibial surface
shin splints involve what 2 things?
pain and inflammation
is their disruption of cortical bone in shin splints?
NO disruption of cortical bone in shin splints
4 ways to prevent injury?
1) Protective Equipment
2) Warm up and Cool down
3) Keeping fit and flexible
4) Eating and Resting
in order to function effectively, the body must receive what 2 things?