Chapter 8 - Sport Injuries Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 8 - Sport Injuries Deck (103):
1

what are the 4 types of tissue?

epithelial, muscle, connective and nervous

2

under a load, tissue experiences ________

under a load tissue experiences deformation

3

how can deformation be visualized?

deformation can be visualized through the load deformation curve

4

elastic region

point where tissue stretches like an elastic band (stretch it, and it goes back with no change)

5

what is the tissues response to training loads if the training load is less than or equal to the elastic limit?

- micro-failure --> making of new tissue

- positive training effect

6

what is the tissues response to training loads if the training load is higher than the elastic limit?

- permanent failure
- injury (scar tissue)

7

what are the 5 forces acting on tissue?

tension, compression, bending, shearing, and torsion

8

shearing

creates a shearing force between the opposing force against the structure

9

give an example of shearing

blister = caused by the foot rubbing/shearing against the shoe

10

tension

tensile force/load

11

give an example of tension

when you bend the knee, the tensile force/load is on the hamstring

12

does tension occur on the concentric or eccentric load?

mostly on the eccentric load

13

bending

2 part force: compression and tension occur

14

when is a time we often compress the bones of the legs and feet

when walking

15

torsion

screw/unscrew. twisting

16

what is the name of a fracture from torsion

spiral fracture

17

treatment

- received by patient from a health care professional
- promotes healing
- improves quality of injured tissue
- allows quicker return to activity

18

rehabilitation

- therapists restoration of injured tissue and patients participation
- individualized for each athlete

19

what are the 3 healing phases in order?

1) Inflammatory Response Phase
2) Fibroblastic Repair Phase
3) Maturation-Remodelling Phase

20

how long does the inflammatory response phase take?

2-4 days

21

how long does fibroblastic repair phase take?

hours-6 weeks

22

how long does the maturation-remodelling phase take?

3 weeks-years

23

when does inflammation begin?

same time as injury

24

what are 5 signs of inflammation?

-redness
-swelling
-pain
-increased temperatures
-loss of function

25

What 5 things do you have to do for inflammation?

-protect
-rest
-cryotherapy
-compression
-elevation

26

cryotherapy

-decreases swelling, bleeding, pain and spasms.
-cold/ice

27

true or false: cold gets rid of swelling

FALSE: cold does NOT get rid of swelling, it just helps to reduce/manage pain

28

does compression make swelling go away?

compression decreases swelling but does not make it go away

29

what does elevation do for inflammation?

it reduces the amount of accumulation on the other end to decrease swelling

30

4 things that happen during the Fibroblastic Repair Phase are?

1) repair ad scar formation
2) granulation tissue fills the gap
3) collagen fibres are deposited by fibroblasts
4) signs seen in the phase1 subside

31

what 3 things can you do during the fibroblastic repair phase to help with healing?

1) rehab-specific exercises
2) manual massage therapy and ultrasound
3) protective taping and bracing

32

what do rehab-specific exercise do?

restore range of motion and strength

33

what does manual massage therapy and ultrasound do?

help break down scar

34

maturation-remodelling phase

remodelling or realigning of the scar tissue

35

what can you do to help repair during the maturation-remodelling phase?

more aggressive stretching and strengthening to organize the scar tissue along the lines of tensile stress

36

natures warning system

pain

37

contusions

medical term for bruising

38

where does a bruise come from

compressing force crushing tissue

39

what does a bruise look like

discolouration and swelling

40

myositis ossificans

abnormal bone formation in a severe contusion

41

when is a contusion life threatening?

if the tissue involved is a vital organ

42

what is the term for a contusion of the brain?

concussion

43

PRICE

method of healing contusions
Pressure, Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation

44

how long is price needed for?

24-48 hours

45

strain

tendon or muscle tissue is stretched or torn

46

sprain

ligament or the joint capsule is stretched or torn

47

what are the 3 grades of sprains and strains?

Grade 1
Grade 2
Grade 3

48

Grade 1 Strain/Sprain

slightly stretched or torn; few muscle fibres

49

Grade 2 Strain/Sprain

moderately stretched or torn, more muscle fibres

50

Grade 3 Strain/Sprain

-complete rupture
-surgery required
-E.g., ACL tear

51

what are 5 common places for strains?

Quadriceps, Adductors, Hip Flexors, Hamstrings, Rotator cuffs

52

what is the most frequent strain?

Hamstring

53

what is the mechanism of a hamstring strain?

-rapid contraction in a lengthened position
-E.g., sprinting and running

54

Hamstring strains are due to what?

strength imbalance
Hamstring strength

55

what is the most common ankle sprain?

lateral ankle sprain (inversion)

56

list 3 symptoms of ankle sprains

1) rapid swelling
2) point tenderness
3) loss of function

57

rehabilitation for ankle sprains

- decreases reoccurrence
- incorporation of balance exercises

58

dislocation

great enough force pushes the joint beyond its normal anatomical limits

59

subluxation (partial dislocation)

-when supporting structures (e.g., ligaments) are stretched or torn enough
-bony surfaces partially separate

60

where is the most common dislocation?

fingers

61

true or false: dislocations can become chronic

true

62

what are the 2 categories of shoulder dislocation?

-partial (sublaxation)
-complete

63

what are 3 symptoms of dislocation of shoulder?

1) swelling, numbness, pain, weakness, bruising
2) capsule and/or rotator cuff tears
3) brachial plexus injury

64

what is required to relocated head of humerus back to glenoid fossa?

require medical treatment to relocate the head of the humerus back to the glenoid fossa

65

what are the 4 types of fractures?

1) Simple fracture
2) compound fracture
3) Stress fracture
4) avulsion fracture

66

simple fracture

stays within the surrounding soft tissue

67

compound fracture

protrudes from the skin

68

which type of fracture has a high potential for infection?

compound fracture

69

stress fracture

results from repeated low magnitude loads

70

avulsion fracture

involves tendon or ligament pulling small chip of bone

71

what type of fracture is common on bad ligament sprains

avulsion fracture

72

concussion

injury to the head

73

mechanism of concussion

-violent shaking or jarring action of the head
-brain bounces against the inside of the skull

74

list 2 symptoms of concussions

-confusion
-temporary loss of normal brain function

75

true or false: there is something called a minor concussion and you can just shake off concussions

FALSE: there is no such thing as "minor concussion" and "shaking off"

76

Overuse injuries are do to what?

-repeated and accumulated microtrauma
-non-sufficient recovery

77

overuse injuries result from?

-poor technique
-poor equipment
-too much training
-type of training

78

tendonitis

inflammation of tendon as a result of a small tear in the tendon

79

list 3 symptoms of tendonitis

-pain (aggravated by movement)
-tenderness
-stiffness near joint

80

Tennis Elbow

-lateral epicondylitis

81

tennis elbow affects what?

forearm extensors

82

what are the contributing factors to tennis elbow?

-excessive forearm pronation and wrist flexion
-gripping racquet too tightly
-improper size grip
-excessive string tension
-excessive racquet weight
-topspins
-hitting ball off centre

83

golfer's and little league elbow

medial epicongylitis

84

golfer's and little league elbow affects what?

tendons of forearm flexors

85

what could golfer's and little league elbow result in?

may result in collateral ligament and ulnar nerve injury and may affect medial humeral growth plate in young children (little league elbow)

86

Jumpers knee

patellar tendonitis

87

what does jumpers knee affect?

affects infrapatellar ligament

88

what is jumpers knee caused by?

-repetitive eccentric knee actions
-eccentric load during jump preparation>>body weight
-happens from the landing (huge eccentric load on quadriceps)

89

bursitis

inflammation of the bursae

90

bursae

tiny fluid-filled sacs that lubricate and cushion pressure points between bone and tendons

91

bursitis results from what?

results from overuse and stress - age is also a factor

92

where is bursitis most common?

shoulder elbow and hip

93

what aggravates the inflammation of bursitis?

inflammation and pain aggravated by movement and direct pressure

94

shoulder impingement

-excess movement of the humeral head + lack of space
-inflammation of bursae or rotator cuff tendon

95

what is the result of muscle imbalances in shoulder muscles?

-weak shoulder depressors
-strong shoulder elevators

96

stress fractures

results from repeated low-magnitude forces
1) small disruption of the outer bone layer
2) weakened bone
3) cortical bone fracture

97

true or false: Stress fracture is a shin splint

FALSE: stress fracture is NOT a shin splint

98

shin splints

pain along inside tibial surface

99

shin splints involve what 2 things?

pain and inflammation

100

is their disruption of cortical bone in shin splints?

NO disruption of cortical bone in shin splints

101

4 ways to prevent injury?

1) Protective Equipment
2) Warm up and Cool down
3) Keeping fit and flexible
4) Eating and Resting

102

in order to function effectively, the body must receive what 2 things?

-proper nutrient
-adequate rest

103

What 2 things should be avoided to prevent injury?

-over-training and lack of sleep