Chapter 16 - Movement Intelligence Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 16 - Movement Intelligence Deck (70):
1

movement intelligence

an aggregate or vast repertoire of movement experiences developed since birth

2

what does movement intelligence allow us to do?

produce endless variety of skills

3

true or false: the skills we posses are static elements

FALSE: the skills we posses are NOT static elements

4

the ability to _____ allows us to continually improve skills

learn

5

in order to gain benefits of any physical ability (PA), what is necessary to unlock your potential?

some degree or movement intelligence (MI) is necessary

6

motor programs

movement plans

7

when are motor programs developed?

when learning new skills

8

where are motor programs stored?

in memory

9

parameters

specify such things as the order of events, the overall duration of the event, the overall force needed to accomplish the movement, and temporal patterning

10

what are the 2 kinds of parameters?

stable and unstable

11

stable parameters

e.g., relative time and relative force applied in each stroke during table tennis

12

unstable parameters

e.g., speeding up the sequence of the movements and increasing overall force applied during forehand stroke

13

well established _________ form the basis for automatic and spontaneous movements in sports and require a little or no attention and mental effort

Generalized Motor Programs (GMP's)

14

Motor intelligence can be simply viewed as what?

a vast store of motor programs

15

true or false: motor programs cannot be observed directly BUT can be inferred by observing the skills and movement patterns

true

16

the larger the repertoire of motor programs, the larger the _________ and the more proficient we are in playing sports, because of the larger selection

motor intelligence store

17

motor intelligence is an active process; through practice we develop new _______ and ______

motor plans and skills

18

true or false: larger MI store = larger selection of motor programs = more skills and a greater sport proficiency

true

19

movement abilities

inherited, relatively enduring and stable traits which serve as the foundation stones for the development of motor programs

20

what does the quality and effectiveness of motor programs depend on?

the presence of underlying motor abilities

21

analogy

hypothetical model of links indicating abilities underlying performance in 2 skills, rowing and hockey

22

how many abilities are there?

26 identified by lab research and those yet to be identified

23

list 11 perceptual-motor abilities

1) controlled precision
2) multi-limb coordination
3) response orientation
4) reaction time
5) speed of arm movement
6) rate control
7) manual dexterity
8) finger dexterity
9) arm-hand steadiness
10) wrist-finger speed
11) aiming

24

list 11 physical proficiency abilities

1) explosive strength
2) static strength
3) dynamic strength
4) trunk strength
5) extent flexibility
6) dynamic flexibility
7) gross body equilibrium
8) balance with visual cues
9) speed of limb movement
10) gross body coordination
11) stamina

25

list 4 general coordination abilities

1) movement rate
2) motor timing
3) perceptual timing
4) force control

26

what are the 3 categories of movement abilities

1) perceptual-motor abilities
2) physical proficiency abilities
3) general coordination abilities

27

true or false: all individuals posses all movement abilities, albeit to varying degrees

true

28

true or false: many people have the same pattern of abilities

FALSE: no 2 persons have the same pattern of abilities

29

why do people excel at some activities, but are mediocre at others?

it all depends on the pattern of strengths and weaknesses of ones inherited motor abilities. having a low skill level at one activity does not mean having a low skill level in another activity

30

all around athletes

posses strong abilities that underlie the many sports in which they excel. they have more high end abilities than normal individuals and therefore excel in more sports

31

can practice improve motor abilities?

human abilities are genetically determined, however, intensive ability-specific practice may potentially improve motor abilities

32

what is an example of intensive ability-specific practice improving motor abilities?

research at the U of Toronto indicates that practice on Dynavision improves a variety of psychomotor abilities and performance

33

what are 2 lead up activities and drills?

1) transfer to another target sporting activity
2) improvement of basic abilities

34

transfer to another target sporting activity

e.g., passing, shooting, dribbling and faking drills for soccer/basketball

35

improvement of basic abilities

-quickening, balancing, perceptual exercises etc.
-e.g., perceptual motor training

36

skill as a task

an action or task that requires voluntary body and/or limb movement to achieve a goal

37

true or false: a skill as a task must be learned, have a purpose and be performed voluntarily

true

38

what is an example of a skill as a task?

catching a baseball

39

skill as a quality of performance

the ability to bring about some end result with maximum certainty and minimum outlay of energy, or of time and energy

40

being skilled involves attaining the performance with ________

maximum certainty

41

true or false: obtaining performance outcome on some occasions and not on others is not a skilled action, because the element of luck may have been involved

true

42

true or false: being able to minimize energy used to carry out an action constitutes a skilled performance

true

43

what are 3 reasons to conserve energy?

1) can be used at times most needed
2) can be directed towards other aspects of activity (e.g., strategy, creativity)
3) allows pacing oneself for longer periods of time

44

minimum time

being able to perform a skill in minimum time

45

true or false: minimum time is a strict goal of all movements

FALSE: minimizing time is not a strict goal of all movements

46

what is the overall purpose of the executive program

1) acts as a goal
2) gives direction to skilled acts
3) orders the execution of certain subroutines
4) makes flexible decisions and adaptations

47

subroutines

isolated units of the total executive program

48

true or false: subroutines are fixed and will run off automatically once the sequence is established

true

49

true or false: subroutines are capable of being repeated over and over again unless changed by the executive program

true

50

what must subroutines follow to be effectively carried out?

particular sequence for the executive program

51

temporal patterning

the ability of the performer to integrate the sequential organization of a movement pattern

52

________ includes the ability to smoothly connect succesive subroutines so that the skill may be executed in a flowing coordinated fashion

temporal patterning

53

inexperienced performed

jerky movement pattern because the timing between subroutines not estabished

54

experienced performed

transition between each subroutine is shorter and smoother

55

what are the possible classification systems?

- team vs dual vs individual
- summer vs winter

56

what is the more comprehensive classification of motor skills?

according to the effects of environment on learning and executing skills

57

how are closed skills performed?

performed under constant, relatively unchanging conditions

58

what is often the goal of the closed skill

the movement form itself is often the goal of the skill

59

what is an example of closed skill?

gymnastic of figure skating routines

60

goal

stereotyped movements that consistently produce the desired response

61

strategy

learning environment structured so that the desired response will occur

62

repeating the selected movement pattern consistently without allowing external influences to affect the performance

strategy (e.g. noise)

63

what 2 feedbacks are especially effective for teaching strategies for closed skills?

use of kinaesthetic and proprioceptive feedback

64

open skills

environment are continually changing and require performers to adjust and respond to the environment around them

65

true or false: for open skills, responses can be made effectively far in advance

FALSE: for open skills, responses CANNOT be made effectively far in advance

66

demand the capacity to adapt, anticipate, and be flexible in responses. is this for closed or open skills?

open skills

67

what should the learning environment in open skills be like?

closely approximate the environment in which the skill will take place

68

for open skills, learners should exercise ______ and _____ and different scenarios that approximate real environment

variability and adaptability

69

for open skills one should start learning with making the skill more ______ and once a certain level of proficiency has been achieved, make the skill more _____

closed, open

70

what 5 understandings enhance your learning potential?

1) anatomical structures in limiting human movements
2) how the body moves most efficiently
3) how the body develops over time
4) where our energy comes from
5) how to maintain healthy, injury-free body