Flashcards in Chapter 16 - Movement Intelligence Deck (70)
an aggregate or vast repertoire of movement experiences developed since birth
what does movement intelligence allow us to do?
produce endless variety of skills
true or false: the skills we posses are static elements
FALSE: the skills we posses are NOT static elements
the ability to _____ allows us to continually improve skills
in order to gain benefits of any physical ability (PA), what is necessary to unlock your potential?
some degree or movement intelligence (MI) is necessary
when are motor programs developed?
when learning new skills
where are motor programs stored?
specify such things as the order of events, the overall duration of the event, the overall force needed to accomplish the movement, and temporal patterning
what are the 2 kinds of parameters?
stable and unstable
e.g., relative time and relative force applied in each stroke during table tennis
e.g., speeding up the sequence of the movements and increasing overall force applied during forehand stroke
well established _________ form the basis for automatic and spontaneous movements in sports and require a little or no attention and mental effort
Generalized Motor Programs (GMP's)
Motor intelligence can be simply viewed as what?
a vast store of motor programs
true or false: motor programs cannot be observed directly BUT can be inferred by observing the skills and movement patterns
the larger the repertoire of motor programs, the larger the _________ and the more proficient we are in playing sports, because of the larger selection
motor intelligence store
motor intelligence is an active process; through practice we develop new _______ and ______
motor plans and skills
true or false: larger MI store = larger selection of motor programs = more skills and a greater sport proficiency
inherited, relatively enduring and stable traits which serve as the foundation stones for the development of motor programs
what does the quality and effectiveness of motor programs depend on?
the presence of underlying motor abilities
hypothetical model of links indicating abilities underlying performance in 2 skills, rowing and hockey
how many abilities are there?
26 identified by lab research and those yet to be identified
list 11 perceptual-motor abilities
1) controlled precision
2) multi-limb coordination
3) response orientation
4) reaction time
5) speed of arm movement
6) rate control
7) manual dexterity
8) finger dexterity
9) arm-hand steadiness
10) wrist-finger speed
list 11 physical proficiency abilities
1) explosive strength
2) static strength
3) dynamic strength
4) trunk strength
5) extent flexibility
6) dynamic flexibility
7) gross body equilibrium
8) balance with visual cues
9) speed of limb movement
10) gross body coordination
list 4 general coordination abilities
1) movement rate
2) motor timing
3) perceptual timing
4) force control
what are the 3 categories of movement abilities
1) perceptual-motor abilities
2) physical proficiency abilities
3) general coordination abilities
true or false: all individuals posses all movement abilities, albeit to varying degrees
true or false: many people have the same pattern of abilities
FALSE: no 2 persons have the same pattern of abilities
why do people excel at some activities, but are mediocre at others?
it all depends on the pattern of strengths and weaknesses of ones inherited motor abilities. having a low skill level at one activity does not mean having a low skill level in another activity
all around athletes
posses strong abilities that underlie the many sports in which they excel. they have more high end abilities than normal individuals and therefore excel in more sports
can practice improve motor abilities?
human abilities are genetically determined, however, intensive ability-specific practice may potentially improve motor abilities
what is an example of intensive ability-specific practice improving motor abilities?
research at the U of Toronto indicates that practice on Dynavision improves a variety of psychomotor abilities and performance
what are 2 lead up activities and drills?
1) transfer to another target sporting activity
2) improvement of basic abilities
transfer to another target sporting activity
e.g., passing, shooting, dribbling and faking drills for soccer/basketball
improvement of basic abilities
-quickening, balancing, perceptual exercises etc.
-e.g., perceptual motor training
skill as a task
an action or task that requires voluntary body and/or limb movement to achieve a goal
true or false: a skill as a task must be learned, have a purpose and be performed voluntarily
what is an example of a skill as a task?
catching a baseball
skill as a quality of performance
the ability to bring about some end result with maximum certainty and minimum outlay of energy, or of time and energy
being skilled involves attaining the performance with ________
true or false: obtaining performance outcome on some occasions and not on others is not a skilled action, because the element of luck may have been involved
true or false: being able to minimize energy used to carry out an action constitutes a skilled performance
what are 3 reasons to conserve energy?
1) can be used at times most needed
2) can be directed towards other aspects of activity (e.g., strategy, creativity)
3) allows pacing oneself for longer periods of time
being able to perform a skill in minimum time
true or false: minimum time is a strict goal of all movements
FALSE: minimizing time is not a strict goal of all movements
what is the overall purpose of the executive program
1) acts as a goal
2) gives direction to skilled acts
3) orders the execution of certain subroutines
4) makes flexible decisions and adaptations
isolated units of the total executive program
true or false: subroutines are fixed and will run off automatically once the sequence is established
true or false: subroutines are capable of being repeated over and over again unless changed by the executive program
what must subroutines follow to be effectively carried out?
particular sequence for the executive program
the ability of the performer to integrate the sequential organization of a movement pattern
________ includes the ability to smoothly connect succesive subroutines so that the skill may be executed in a flowing coordinated fashion
jerky movement pattern because the timing between subroutines not estabished
transition between each subroutine is shorter and smoother
what are the possible classification systems?
- team vs dual vs individual
- summer vs winter
what is the more comprehensive classification of motor skills?
according to the effects of environment on learning and executing skills
how are closed skills performed?
performed under constant, relatively unchanging conditions
what is often the goal of the closed skill
the movement form itself is often the goal of the skill
what is an example of closed skill?
gymnastic of figure skating routines
stereotyped movements that consistently produce the desired response
learning environment structured so that the desired response will occur
repeating the selected movement pattern consistently without allowing external influences to affect the performance
strategy (e.g. noise)
what 2 feedbacks are especially effective for teaching strategies for closed skills?
use of kinaesthetic and proprioceptive feedback
environment are continually changing and require performers to adjust and respond to the environment around them
true or false: for open skills, responses can be made effectively far in advance
FALSE: for open skills, responses CANNOT be made effectively far in advance
demand the capacity to adapt, anticipate, and be flexible in responses. is this for closed or open skills?
what should the learning environment in open skills be like?
closely approximate the environment in which the skill will take place
for open skills, learners should exercise ______ and _____ and different scenarios that approximate real environment
variability and adaptability
for open skills one should start learning with making the skill more ______ and once a certain level of proficiency has been achieved, make the skill more _____