Chapter 6 - the heart and lungs at work Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6 - the heart and lungs at work Deck (78):
1

what is considered the most popular cardiovascular exercise?

Running

2

what are the 4 primary roles of the cardiovascular system?

1) to transport oxygen from the lungs to the heart
2) to transport carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs
3) to transport nutrients from the digestive system to other areas in the body
4) to transport products from sites of production to sites of exercise

3

what are the 2 components to measure blood pressure?

1) Diastole
2) Systole

4

Diastole

used to decribe the pressure in the heart when the ventricles are relaxed and are being filled with blood. indicator of peripheral blood pressure (the blood pressure in the body outside the heart)

5

Systole

the pressure in the ventricles when they are contracting and pushing blood out into the body

6

what is the normal range of pressure in the atria during diastole?

80mmHg

7

what is the normal range of pressure in the atria during systole?

120mmHg

8

what is the rest point called

diastole

9

the further from the heart, the lower the pressure. is this true or false?

true

10

what 2 items does a doctor use to take a patient's blood pressure?

sphygmomanometer and stethoscope

11

hypertensive

blood pressure is too high - increases pressure going into the brain

12

problems with low blood pressure below 100 systolic

not enough blood going to brain

13

stroke volume

the amount of blood pumped out of the left ventricle each time the heart beats

14

what is stroke volume measured in?

milliliters

15

what is a typical stroke volume for a normal heart?

about 70 milliliters of blood per beat

16

what are the 2 ways to take heart rate?

with fingers on the wrist (radial) and with fingers on the neck (carotid)

17

heart rate

the number of times the heart beats in one minute, measured in beats per minute (bpm)

18

what are the contraction of the walls of the heart commonly known as?

the heart beat

19

what range can the resting heart rate of an adult be from?

40bpm in a highly trained athlete to 70bpm in a normal person

20

during intense exercise, the heart rate may increase up to ____ bpm

200bpm

21

what is the maximum heart rate?

220bpm

22

vessels that carry blood away from the heart are called ____

arteries

23

arteries branch into smaller and smaller vessels called _______

arterioles

24

the arterioles branch into even smaller vessels called ______

capillaries

25

peripheral nervous system

between heart and lungs

26

capillaries

allow for the exchange of oxygen and nutrients from the blood to the muscles and organs and allow blood to pick up the waste products and carbon dioxide from metabolism

27

as the blood begins to return to the heart, the capillaries connect to from larger and larger vessels called ______

venules

28

the venules then merge into larger vessels that return blood to the heart called ____

veins

29

the skeletal muscle pump

blood that flows towards the heart opens the valves and blood that flows away from the heart closes the valves

30

vericose veins

the valves failed (blood pools back down)

31

red blood cells

single blood cell

32

what is another name for a red blood cell

erythrocyte

33

what is the primary function of red blood cells?

to transport oxygen from the lungs to the tissues and remove carbon dioxide from the body

34

Hemoglobin

what makes red blood cells able to function and transport oxygen

35

what makes hemoglobin red

iron is imbedded in the heme molecule

36

what are 2 other components of blood (other than red blood cells)?

white blood cells and clear fluid plasma

37

red blood cells make up about 45% of blood and this volume is called ______

hematocrit

38

new red blood cells or reticulocytes are produced where?

in the bone marrow

39

erythropoietin (EPO)

a circulating hormone that is the principal factor that stimulates red blood cell formation

40

EPO is secreted in response to what?

in response to low oxygen levels (as when one goes to high altitude) and also in response to exercise, thus increasing the percentage of new red blood cells in the body

41

do new, or old red blood cells contain more hemoglobin and thus carry greater amounts of oxygen?

new contain more hemoglobin and thus carry greater amount of oxygen

42

what has an effect on EPO production which in turn generates a high production of red blood cells?

High altitude

43

O2 Uptake

the amount of oxygen that is consumed by the body due to aerobic metabolism

44

What happens to O2 uptake in relation to the amount of energy that is required to perform an activity

increases

45

(VO2)

the measure of the volume of oxygen that is consumed in a given amount of time (usually a minute) per Kg of body weight (ml/kg/min)

46

(VO2 Max)

a measure used to evaluate the maximal volume of oxygen that can be supplied to and consumed by the body

47

what is the primary role of the respiratory system?

1) deliver oxygenated air to the blood
2) remove carbon dioxide from blood, a by-product of metabolism

48

what 3 things does the respiratory system include?

1) the lungs
2) several passageways leading from outside to the lungs
3) muscles that move air into and out of the lungs

49

what are the 3 meanings for the term respiration?

1) ventilation (breathing)
2) gas exchange (occurs between the air and blood in the lungs and between the blood and other tissues of the body)
3) oxygen utilization by the tissues for cellular respiration

50

where are the lungs located?

within the thoracic cavity/chest

51

are the lungs symmetrical or asymmetrical?

asymmetrical. the right lung is larger than the left lung because the heart takes up more space on the left side

52

what 2 functional zones are the air passages of the respiratory system divided into?

1) the conduction zone
2) the respiratory zone

53

The conduction zone

the set of anatomical structures in which air passes before reaching the respiratory zone

54

what 2 places does air enter through? what happens once air enters?

the nose and the mouth. air is then filtered, humidified, and adjusted to body temperature in the trachea

55

trachea

windpipe

56

the trachea branches into the right and left ______

bronchii

57

the right and left bronchii enter the lung and continue to branch into smaller and smaller tubes called ________ and finally the terminal bronchioles

bronchioles

58

the whole system looks similar to an upside-down tree that it is commonly called _______

respiration tree

59

the respiration zone

region where gas exchange occurs

60

alveoli

the functional units of the lungs - tiny air sacs

61

alveoli are clustered in bunches like grapes, wit a common opening into an alveolar duct called an ___________

alveolar sac

62

the muscles surrounding the thoracic cavity which result in size change include?

Diaphragm, external intercostal muscles (expiration) and internal intercostal muscles (inspiration)

63

what happens when the diaphragm contracts

it allows blood to get into the lower extremities

64

what effect does doing exercises that work where diaphragm goes down?

improves efficiency of the heart and lungs

65

Cardiac Output

increase in heart size is one of the benefits that may arise as a result of endurance training

66

what do a larger atria and ventricles allow for?

allow for a greater volume of blood to be pumped each time the heart beats

67

what does the increased thickness of the walls of the heart (cardiac muscle) allow for?

allow for increased contractility (rate of contraction)

68

atria

collecting chambers of the heart

69

capillary supply

increased capillarization is another benefit that may arise as a result of endurance training

70

increased capillarization allows for:

1) a greater surface area and reduced distance between the blood and the surrounding tissues
2) increasing diffusion capacity of oxygen and carbon dioxide
3) easing transport of nutrients to cells

71

blood volume

increase in total blood volume along with the number and total volume of red blood cells

72

how is the increase in total blood volume along with the number and total volume of red blood cells done?

through stimulation of erythropoiesis in the bone marrow

73

erythropoiesis

formation of new red blood cells

74

why does ventilation increase with exercise?

in order to meet the increased demand of gas exchange

75

during exercise, ventilation can increase from 6L/minute at rest to over ___L/minute during maximal exercise and to more than 200L/minute during maximal voluntary breathing

150L/minute

76

true or false: with exercise/endurance, the lungs become more inefficient in gas exchange

false: with exercise/endurance, the lungs become more efficient in gas exchange

77

oxygen extraction

similar to ventilation in that the increased air flow allows for more gas exchange

78

bohr effect

when increased body temperature promotes oxygen extraction