Flashcards in Chapter 6 - the heart and lungs at work Deck (78):
what is considered the most popular cardiovascular exercise?
what are the 4 primary roles of the cardiovascular system?
1) to transport oxygen from the lungs to the heart
2) to transport carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs
3) to transport nutrients from the digestive system to other areas in the body
4) to transport products from sites of production to sites of exercise
what are the 2 components to measure blood pressure?
used to decribe the pressure in the heart when the ventricles are relaxed and are being filled with blood. indicator of peripheral blood pressure (the blood pressure in the body outside the heart)
the pressure in the ventricles when they are contracting and pushing blood out into the body
what is the normal range of pressure in the atria during diastole?
what is the normal range of pressure in the atria during systole?
what is the rest point called
the further from the heart, the lower the pressure. is this true or false?
what 2 items does a doctor use to take a patient's blood pressure?
sphygmomanometer and stethoscope
blood pressure is too high - increases pressure going into the brain
problems with low blood pressure below 100 systolic
not enough blood going to brain
the amount of blood pumped out of the left ventricle each time the heart beats
what is stroke volume measured in?
what is a typical stroke volume for a normal heart?
about 70 milliliters of blood per beat
what are the 2 ways to take heart rate?
with fingers on the wrist (radial) and with fingers on the neck (carotid)
the number of times the heart beats in one minute, measured in beats per minute (bpm)
what are the contraction of the walls of the heart commonly known as?
the heart beat
what range can the resting heart rate of an adult be from?
40bpm in a highly trained athlete to 70bpm in a normal person
during intense exercise, the heart rate may increase up to ____ bpm
what is the maximum heart rate?
vessels that carry blood away from the heart are called ____
arteries branch into smaller and smaller vessels called _______
the arterioles branch into even smaller vessels called ______
peripheral nervous system
between heart and lungs
allow for the exchange of oxygen and nutrients from the blood to the muscles and organs and allow blood to pick up the waste products and carbon dioxide from metabolism
as the blood begins to return to the heart, the capillaries connect to from larger and larger vessels called ______
the venules then merge into larger vessels that return blood to the heart called ____
the skeletal muscle pump
blood that flows towards the heart opens the valves and blood that flows away from the heart closes the valves
the valves failed (blood pools back down)
red blood cells
single blood cell
what is another name for a red blood cell
what is the primary function of red blood cells?
to transport oxygen from the lungs to the tissues and remove carbon dioxide from the body
what makes red blood cells able to function and transport oxygen
what makes hemoglobin red
iron is imbedded in the heme molecule
what are 2 other components of blood (other than red blood cells)?
white blood cells and clear fluid plasma
red blood cells make up about 45% of blood and this volume is called ______
new red blood cells or reticulocytes are produced where?
in the bone marrow
a circulating hormone that is the principal factor that stimulates red blood cell formation
EPO is secreted in response to what?
in response to low oxygen levels (as when one goes to high altitude) and also in response to exercise, thus increasing the percentage of new red blood cells in the body
do new, or old red blood cells contain more hemoglobin and thus carry greater amounts of oxygen?
new contain more hemoglobin and thus carry greater amount of oxygen
what has an effect on EPO production which in turn generates a high production of red blood cells?
the amount of oxygen that is consumed by the body due to aerobic metabolism
What happens to O2 uptake in relation to the amount of energy that is required to perform an activity
the measure of the volume of oxygen that is consumed in a given amount of time (usually a minute) per Kg of body weight (ml/kg/min)
a measure used to evaluate the maximal volume of oxygen that can be supplied to and consumed by the body
what is the primary role of the respiratory system?
1) deliver oxygenated air to the blood
2) remove carbon dioxide from blood, a by-product of metabolism
what 3 things does the respiratory system include?
1) the lungs
2) several passageways leading from outside to the lungs
3) muscles that move air into and out of the lungs
what are the 3 meanings for the term respiration?
1) ventilation (breathing)
2) gas exchange (occurs between the air and blood in the lungs and between the blood and other tissues of the body)
3) oxygen utilization by the tissues for cellular respiration
where are the lungs located?
within the thoracic cavity/chest
are the lungs symmetrical or asymmetrical?
asymmetrical. the right lung is larger than the left lung because the heart takes up more space on the left side
what 2 functional zones are the air passages of the respiratory system divided into?
1) the conduction zone
2) the respiratory zone
The conduction zone
the set of anatomical structures in which air passes before reaching the respiratory zone
what 2 places does air enter through? what happens once air enters?
the nose and the mouth. air is then filtered, humidified, and adjusted to body temperature in the trachea
the trachea branches into the right and left ______
the right and left bronchii enter the lung and continue to branch into smaller and smaller tubes called ________ and finally the terminal bronchioles
the whole system looks similar to an upside-down tree that it is commonly called _______
the respiration zone
region where gas exchange occurs
the functional units of the lungs - tiny air sacs
alveoli are clustered in bunches like grapes, wit a common opening into an alveolar duct called an ___________
the muscles surrounding the thoracic cavity which result in size change include?
Diaphragm, external intercostal muscles (expiration) and internal intercostal muscles (inspiration)
what happens when the diaphragm contracts
it allows blood to get into the lower extremities
what effect does doing exercises that work where diaphragm goes down?
improves efficiency of the heart and lungs
increase in heart size is one of the benefits that may arise as a result of endurance training
what do a larger atria and ventricles allow for?
allow for a greater volume of blood to be pumped each time the heart beats
what does the increased thickness of the walls of the heart (cardiac muscle) allow for?
allow for increased contractility (rate of contraction)
collecting chambers of the heart
increased capillarization is another benefit that may arise as a result of endurance training
increased capillarization allows for:
1) a greater surface area and reduced distance between the blood and the surrounding tissues
2) increasing diffusion capacity of oxygen and carbon dioxide
3) easing transport of nutrients to cells
increase in total blood volume along with the number and total volume of red blood cells
how is the increase in total blood volume along with the number and total volume of red blood cells done?
through stimulation of erythropoiesis in the bone marrow
formation of new red blood cells
why does ventilation increase with exercise?
in order to meet the increased demand of gas exchange
during exercise, ventilation can increase from 6L/minute at rest to over ___L/minute during maximal exercise and to more than 200L/minute during maximal voluntary breathing
true or false: with exercise/endurance, the lungs become more inefficient in gas exchange
false: with exercise/endurance, the lungs become more efficient in gas exchange
similar to ventilation in that the increased air flow allows for more gas exchange