Flashcards in Chapter 18- Motor Skills Deck (91)
what 5 factors affect development of movement intelligence?
1)starting at young age
true or false: it is good to start the learning process as early as the preschool years
basis for other activities (walking, throwing, catching)
what is needed for skills to be effectively learned and maintained?
a sufficient time must be allotted for participating in physical activities that enhance __________
true or false: instructors, physical educators, and coaches must be properly trained and have experience with teaching PA
effectiveness of teaching movement skills is directly related to the quality of _______
teaching skills in an organized manner that makes skills easier to grasp and learn
what are the 3 general stages of motor learning?
1) cognitive or acquisition stage
2) associative or stabilization stage
3) autonomous or application stage
each of the 3 stages of motor learning consists of what 2 things?
- changes that occur as motor learning takes place
- important features unique to each stage
cognitive/acquisition stage begins when?
when task is first introduced
during cognitive/acquisition stage, the learned cognitively determines what 2 things?
1) what the particular skill involves
2) performance goals required to perform the skill
2 things about the instructions for cognitive/acquisition stage?
1) are verbally transmitted (verbal stage)
2) serve to convey the general concept of the skill
______ and _______ facilitate learning in cognitive/acquisition stage of motor learning?
self-talk and verbal reminders
what are the 3 performance outcomes of cognitive/acquisition stage?
what is associative/stabilization stage focused on?
performing and refining the skill
what is concentration of associative/stabilization stage directed towards?
smaller details (e.g., timing)
what is the performance outcome of associative/stabilization stage?
controlled and consistent
are the performance improvements of stage 2 of motor learning slow or rapid?
rapid (though somewhat slower than first stage)
2 things about the performance of stage 3 (autonomous/application stage)
automatic and very proficient
what are the 2 performance improvements of autonomous/application stage?
- less obvious (e.g, reduced mental effort, improved style, reduced anxiety)
the information that occurs as a result of a movement
true or false: all information is received during the movement
FALSE: some information is received during the movement and some is provided as a result of the movement
true or false: feedback is one of the weakest factors that controls the effectiveness of learning
FALSE: feedback is one of the strongest factors that controls the effectiveness of learning
information that is provided as a natural consequence of performing an action
what are the 2 forms of intrinsic feedback?
1)knowledge of performance (arm extension when hitting the tennis ball)
2)knowledge of results (watching the tennis ball land in the opponents court)
informaton that is provided to the learner by somebody else or some artificial means following a performance outcome
what kind of information does extrinsic feedback provide?
information above and beyond what is naturally available to the learned (augmented feedback)
true or false: extrinsic feedback can be controlled