Flashcards in Chapter 18- Motor Skills Deck (91)
what 5 factors affect development of movement intelligence?
1)starting at young age
true or false: it is good to start the learning process as early as the preschool years
basis for other activities (walking, throwing, catching)
what is needed for skills to be effectively learned and maintained?
a sufficient time must be allotted for participating in physical activities that enhance __________
true or false: instructors, physical educators, and coaches must be properly trained and have experience with teaching PA
effectiveness of teaching movement skills is directly related to the quality of _______
teaching skills in an organized manner that makes skills easier to grasp and learn
what are the 3 general stages of motor learning?
1) cognitive or acquisition stage
2) associative or stabilization stage
3) autonomous or application stage
each of the 3 stages of motor learning consists of what 2 things?
- changes that occur as motor learning takes place
- important features unique to each stage
cognitive/acquisition stage begins when?
when task is first introduced
during cognitive/acquisition stage, the learned cognitively determines what 2 things?
1) what the particular skill involves
2) performance goals required to perform the skill
2 things about the instructions for cognitive/acquisition stage?
1) are verbally transmitted (verbal stage)
2) serve to convey the general concept of the skill
______ and _______ facilitate learning in cognitive/acquisition stage of motor learning?
self-talk and verbal reminders
what are the 3 performance outcomes of cognitive/acquisition stage?
what is associative/stabilization stage focused on?
performing and refining the skill
what is concentration of associative/stabilization stage directed towards?
smaller details (e.g., timing)
what is the performance outcome of associative/stabilization stage?
controlled and consistent
are the performance improvements of stage 2 of motor learning slow or rapid?
rapid (though somewhat slower than first stage)
2 things about the performance of stage 3 (autonomous/application stage)
automatic and very proficient
what are the 2 performance improvements of autonomous/application stage?
- less obvious (e.g, reduced mental effort, improved style, reduced anxiety)
the information that occurs as a result of a movement
true or false: all information is received during the movement
FALSE: some information is received during the movement and some is provided as a result of the movement
true or false: feedback is one of the weakest factors that controls the effectiveness of learning
FALSE: feedback is one of the strongest factors that controls the effectiveness of learning
information that is provided as a natural consequence of performing an action
what are the 2 forms of intrinsic feedback?
1)knowledge of performance (arm extension when hitting the tennis ball)
2)knowledge of results (watching the tennis ball land in the opponents court)
informaton that is provided to the learner by somebody else or some artificial means following a performance outcome
what kind of information does extrinsic feedback provide?
information above and beyond what is naturally available to the learned (augmented feedback)
true or false: extrinsic feedback can be controlled
knowledge of results
-information about the degree of success
-not effective when outcome is obvious
-important when outcome is less obvious
knowledge of performance
-information about the execution of a completed movement
-example: "took your eye off the ball," "swing was a little late," etc.
what does extrinsic feedback serve to do?
serves to motivate the learned
providing feedback continuously for a long period of time can lead to _____
_______ feedback tends to enhance learning
what are 3 types of feedback that minimize dependency?
1) faded feedback
2) bandwidth feedback
3) summary feedback
faded feedback benefit?
teacher can tailor feedback to respect individual differences
3 benefits of bandwidth feedback?
1) eventually faded feedback occurs
2) lack of feedback = positive reinforcement
3) movement consistency develops because learner is not encouraged to change movement on each trial
2 benefits of summary feedback?
1) generates movement consistency
2) avoids overloading the learner
what point in the learning process is information feedback needed most?
during the cognitive stage, feedback is vital
during which point in the learning process is there faded, summary or bandwidth feedback
during associative stage
during which stage in the learning process is there feedback withdrawal
how much feedback is necessary during novel tasks?
- processing capacity can be easily overloaded
- intense but selective instruction
- one important piece of information feedback at a time
what are the 2 precisions of feedback
1) descriptive (general) feedback
2) prescriptive (precise) feedback
descriptive (general) feedback
-indicates something you did, right or wrong
-e.g., there was no follow through
prescriptive (precise) feedback
-provides you with precise correction statements about how to improve your movements
-e.g., snap your wrist more on the follow through
_______ feedback generates far better results
true or false: generally, the greater the delay of information provision the less effect the given information has
is immediate or postponed feedback more beneficial?
true or false: transfer of learning between 2 tasks generally increases as the similarity between them decreases
FALSE: transfer of learning between 2 tasks generally increases as the similarity between them increases
what are the types of transfer?
1) positive vs. negative
2) near vs. far
what is an example of positive transfer
practicing drills and lead-up games with strong (positive) transfer to the actual game
when can learning be positively transferred from practice to game situation?
when drills are similar in nature to the criterion task
is negative transfer common?
activities that may negatively transfer to the criterion task need to be avoided when performance is critical
what is an example of negative transfer
playing mini golf before a golf tournament
when is near transfer desired
when the learning goal is a task taht is relatively similar to the training task
transfer of learning is specific and closely approximates the ultimate situation
what is an example of near transfer
practicing various plays before a volleyball tournament
when is far transfer desired
when interested in developing more general capabilities for a variety of skills
occurs from one task to another very different task
when does far transfer best apply?
when beginning to learn a skill
what is an example of far transfer?
learning to do an overhand throw to help with: baseball throw, football throw, tennis serve, volleyball spike...
what are 4 transfer strategies?
1) training machines and simulators
2) whole vs. part practice
3) lead-up activities and drills
4) mental rehearsal
training machines and simulators
closely mimic features of real-world task
what is the goal of training machines and simulators?
positive transfer of learning from simulator to the target skill
what does the effectiveness of training machines and simulators depend on
the ability to simulate motor as well as perceptual, conceptual, and biomotor elements
-practicing independent components of motor skill
-eventually, units of a task should transfer to the task as a whole
what is an example of part practice?
practicing skill as a whole
what is an example of whole practice
when is part practice effective
for tasks serial in nature and relatively long duration. effective as long as the actions of one part do not interact strongly with the actions of the next part (i.e., independent)
when is whole practice used?
with discrete tasks of short duration where components interact intensely. practicing individual components would change the essence of the skill
progressive part practice
- used to avoid transfer problems due to high levels of interaction among task components
- effective for any sequential action
-e.g., tennis serve
lead up activities and drills
1) transfer to another target sporting activity. e.g., passing, shooting, dribbling, and faking drills for soccer
2) improvement of basic abilities
- quickening, balancing, perceptual exercises, etc.
- e.g., perceptual motor training
the process associated with mentally rehearsing the performance of a skill in the absence of any overt physical movement
true or false: evidence has demonstrated that mental rehearsal generates positively transferable motor learning
what does mental rehearsal involve
constructing model situations and going through the motions of what you will do later
who is mental rehearsal especially beneficial for?
mental rehearsal is a _______ to physical practice
what are the 2 conditions of practice
1) blocked practice
2) random practice
- a given task is practiced on many consecutive trials before setting about the next task
- enables the learners to correct specific problems and refine their skills one at a time
- important early in practice when correct habit should be learned
- ordering of tasks is randomized in a way that tasks from different classes are mixed throughout the practice period
- random practice is very effective once a skill has become more developed
- a schedule in which the amount of rest between practice trials is short relative to the trial length
-e.g., 5 sec of rest for a practice trial lasting 60 secs
-practice that allows for more rest between trials relative to the trial length
-the rest period may last as long as the trial itself
what will reducing the amount of rest between trials do?
reduce the amount of time the body and central nervous system have to recover from physical and mental fatigue
true or false: there is an optimal practice-rest ratio for all learning tasks
FALSE: there is no single optimal practice-rest ratio for all learning tasks
3 things about grouping for practice
1) designed to make learning suitable for everyone involved
2) should be based on the learners skill levels, rather than a subjective determination of their underlying abilities
3) other factors, such as maturity level, previous experience, and level of physical fitness need to be considered
true or false: until the learner has been motivated, effective learning is not likely to occur
who plays an important role in motivating students (encouraging learners to set goals, providing excellent demonstrations, or using visual aids)
true or false: a person who is motivated makes more of an effort during practice, can practice for longer periods of time, and learns more in the end