Chapter 18- Motor Skills Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 18- Motor Skills Deck (91):
1

what 5 factors affect development of movement intelligence?

1)starting at young age
2)learning time
3)instructor
4)equipment
5)progression

2

true or false: it is good to start the learning process as early as the preschool years

true

3

basic skills

basis for other activities (walking, throwing, catching)

4

what is needed for skills to be effectively learned and maintained?

physical experience

5

a sufficient time must be allotted for participating in physical activities that enhance __________

movement skills

6

true or false: instructors, physical educators, and coaches must be properly trained and have experience with teaching PA

true

7

effectiveness of teaching movement skills is directly related to the quality of _______

equipment

8

right progression

teaching skills in an organized manner that makes skills easier to grasp and learn

9

what are the 3 general stages of motor learning?

1) cognitive or acquisition stage
2) associative or stabilization stage
3) autonomous or application stage

10

each of the 3 stages of motor learning consists of what 2 things?

- changes that occur as motor learning takes place
- important features unique to each stage

11

cognitive/acquisition stage begins when?

when task is first introduced

12

during cognitive/acquisition stage, the learned cognitively determines what 2 things?

1) what the particular skill involves
2) performance goals required to perform the skill

13

2 things about the instructions for cognitive/acquisition stage?

1) are verbally transmitted (verbal stage)
2) serve to convey the general concept of the skill

14

______ and _______ facilitate learning in cognitive/acquisition stage of motor learning?

self-talk and verbal reminders

15

what are the 3 performance outcomes of cognitive/acquisition stage?

1) slow
2) jerky
3) awkward

16

what is associative/stabilization stage focused on?

performing and refining the skill

17

what is concentration of associative/stabilization stage directed towards?

smaller details (e.g., timing)

18

what is the performance outcome of associative/stabilization stage?

controlled and consistent

19

are the performance improvements of stage 2 of motor learning slow or rapid?

rapid (though somewhat slower than first stage)

20

2 things about the performance of stage 3 (autonomous/application stage)

automatic and very proficient

21

what are the 2 performance improvements of autonomous/application stage?

- slow
- less obvious (e.g, reduced mental effort, improved style, reduced anxiety)

22

information feedback

the information that occurs as a result of a movement

23

true or false: all information is received during the movement

FALSE: some information is received during the movement and some is provided as a result of the movement

24

true or false: feedback is one of the weakest factors that controls the effectiveness of learning

FALSE: feedback is one of the strongest factors that controls the effectiveness of learning

25

intrinsic feedback

information that is provided as a natural consequence of performing an action

26

what are the 2 forms of intrinsic feedback?

1)knowledge of performance (arm extension when hitting the tennis ball)
2)knowledge of results (watching the tennis ball land in the opponents court)

27

extrinsic feedback

informaton that is provided to the learner by somebody else or some artificial means following a performance outcome

28

what kind of information does extrinsic feedback provide?

information above and beyond what is naturally available to the learned (augmented feedback)

29

true or false: extrinsic feedback can be controlled

true

30

knowledge of results

-information about the degree of success
-not effective when outcome is obvious
-important when outcome is less obvious

31

knowledge of performance

-information about the execution of a completed movement
-example: "took your eye off the ball," "swing was a little late," etc.

32

what does extrinsic feedback serve to do?

serves to motivate the learned

33

providing feedback continuously for a long period of time can lead to _____

dependency

34

_______ feedback tends to enhance learning

occasional feedback

35

what are 3 types of feedback that minimize dependency?

1) faded feedback
2) bandwidth feedback
3) summary feedback

36

faded feedback benefit?

teacher can tailor feedback to respect individual differences

37

3 benefits of bandwidth feedback?

1) eventually faded feedback occurs
2) lack of feedback = positive reinforcement
3) movement consistency develops because learner is not encouraged to change movement on each trial

38

2 benefits of summary feedback?

1) generates movement consistency
2) avoids overloading the learner

39

what point in the learning process is information feedback needed most?

during the cognitive stage, feedback is vital

40

during which point in the learning process is there faded, summary or bandwidth feedback

during associative stage

41

during which stage in the learning process is there feedback withdrawal

autonomous stage

42

how much feedback is necessary during novel tasks?

- processing capacity can be easily overloaded
- intense but selective instruction
- one important piece of information feedback at a time

43

what are the 2 precisions of feedback

1) descriptive (general) feedback
2) prescriptive (precise) feedback

44

descriptive (general) feedback

-indicates something you did, right or wrong
-e.g., there was no follow through

45

prescriptive (precise) feedback

-provides you with precise correction statements about how to improve your movements
-e.g., snap your wrist more on the follow through

46

_______ feedback generates far better results

precise

47

true or false: generally, the greater the delay of information provision the less effect the given information has

true

48

is immediate or postponed feedback more beneficial?

immediate

49

true or false: transfer of learning between 2 tasks generally increases as the similarity between them decreases

FALSE: transfer of learning between 2 tasks generally increases as the similarity between them increases

50

what are the types of transfer?

1) positive vs. negative
2) near vs. far

51

what is an example of positive transfer

practicing drills and lead-up games with strong (positive) transfer to the actual game

52

when can learning be positively transferred from practice to game situation?

when drills are similar in nature to the criterion task

53

is negative transfer common?

not common

54

negative transfer

activities that may negatively transfer to the criterion task need to be avoided when performance is critical

55

what is an example of negative transfer

playing mini golf before a golf tournament

56

when is near transfer desired

when the learning goal is a task taht is relatively similar to the training task

57

near transfer

transfer of learning is specific and closely approximates the ultimate situation

58

what is an example of near transfer

practicing various plays before a volleyball tournament

59

when is far transfer desired

when interested in developing more general capabilities for a variety of skills

60

far transfer

occurs from one task to another very different task

61

when does far transfer best apply?

when beginning to learn a skill

62

what is an example of far transfer?

learning to do an overhand throw to help with: baseball throw, football throw, tennis serve, volleyball spike...

63

what are 4 transfer strategies?

1) training machines and simulators
2) whole vs. part practice
3) lead-up activities and drills
4) mental rehearsal

64

training machines and simulators

closely mimic features of real-world task

65

what is the goal of training machines and simulators?

positive transfer of learning from simulator to the target skill

66

what does the effectiveness of training machines and simulators depend on

the ability to simulate motor as well as perceptual, conceptual, and biomotor elements

67

part practice

-practicing independent components of motor skill
-eventually, units of a task should transfer to the task as a whole

68

what is an example of part practice?

gymnastics routine

69

whole practice

practicing skill as a whole

70

what is an example of whole practice

golf swing

71

when is part practice effective

for tasks serial in nature and relatively long duration. effective as long as the actions of one part do not interact strongly with the actions of the next part (i.e., independent)

72

when is whole practice used?

with discrete tasks of short duration where components interact intensely. practicing individual components would change the essence of the skill

73

progressive part practice

- used to avoid transfer problems due to high levels of interaction among task components
- effective for any sequential action
-e.g., tennis serve

74

lead up activities and drills

1) transfer to another target sporting activity. e.g., passing, shooting, dribbling, and faking drills for soccer
2) improvement of basic abilities
- quickening, balancing, perceptual exercises, etc.
- e.g., perceptual motor training

75

mental rehearsal

the process associated with mentally rehearsing the performance of a skill in the absence of any overt physical movement

76

true or false: evidence has demonstrated that mental rehearsal generates positively transferable motor learning

true

77

what does mental rehearsal involve

constructing model situations and going through the motions of what you will do later

78

who is mental rehearsal especially beneficial for?

injured athletes

79

mental rehearsal is a _______ to physical practice

supplement

80

what are the 2 conditions of practice

1) blocked practice
2) random practice

81

blocked practice

- a given task is practiced on many consecutive trials before setting about the next task
- enables the learners to correct specific problems and refine their skills one at a time
- important early in practice when correct habit should be learned

82

random practice

- ordering of tasks is randomized in a way that tasks from different classes are mixed throughout the practice period
- random practice is very effective once a skill has become more developed

83

massed practice

- a schedule in which the amount of rest between practice trials is short relative to the trial length
-e.g., 5 sec of rest for a practice trial lasting 60 secs

84

distributed practice

-practice that allows for more rest between trials relative to the trial length
-the rest period may last as long as the trial itself

85

what will reducing the amount of rest between trials do?

reduce the amount of time the body and central nervous system have to recover from physical and mental fatigue

86

true or false: there is an optimal practice-rest ratio for all learning tasks

FALSE: there is no single optimal practice-rest ratio for all learning tasks

87

3 things about grouping for practice

1) designed to make learning suitable for everyone involved
2) should be based on the learners skill levels, rather than a subjective determination of their underlying abilities
3) other factors, such as maturity level, previous experience, and level of physical fitness need to be considered

88

true or false: until the learner has been motivated, effective learning is not likely to occur

true

89

who plays an important role in motivating students (encouraging learners to set goals, providing excellent demonstrations, or using visual aids)

instructor

90

true or false: a person who is motivated makes more of an effort during practice, can practice for longer periods of time, and learns more in the end

true

91

the law of effect

organisms tend to repeat responses that are rewarded and to avoid responses that are not rewarded or punished