Chapter 12 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 12 Deck (293):
1

Anti

Prefix
Against

2

Di

Prefix
Complete

3

Uret

Root
Urination

4

Ic

Suffix
Pertaining to

5

Antidiuretic

Prefix + Prefix + Root + Suffix
An Agent that decreases urine production

6

Endo

Prefix
Within

7

Crine

Root
Secrete

8

Endocrine

Prefix + Root
A gland that produces internal or hormonal secretion

9

Endo

Prefix
Within

10

Crine

Root
Secrete

11

Logy

Suffix
Study of

12

Endocrinology

Prefix + Root + Suffix
Medical speciality concerned with the production and effects of hormones

13

Endo

Prefix
Within

14

Crine

Root
Secrete

15

Logist

Suffix
One who studies, specialist

16

Endocrinologist

Prefix + Root + Suffix
A medical specialist in endocrinology

17

Hormone

Greek To set in motion
Chemical formed in one tissue or organ and carried by the bloodstream to stimulate or inhibit a function of another tissue or organ

18

Hormon

Root
Hormone

19

Al

Suffix
Pertaining to

20

Hormonal

Root + Suffix
Pertaining to hormones

21

Hypo

Prefix
Below

22

Thalamus

Root
Thalamus

23

Hypothalamus

Prefix + Root
An endocrine gland in the floor and wall of the third ventricle of the brain

24

Hypo

Prefix
Below

25

Thalam

Root
Thalamus

26

Ic

Suffix
Pertaining to

27

Hypothalamic

Prefix + Root + Suffix
Pertaining to the hypothalamus

28

Mela

Root
Black

29

Ton

Root
Tension, pressure

30

In

Suffix
Substance

31

Melatonin

Root + Root + Suffix
Hormone formed by the pineal gland

32

Oxy

Root
Oxygen

33

Toc

Root
Labor and childbirth

34

In

Suffix
Substance

35

Oxytocin

Root + Root + Suffix
Pituitary hormone that stimulates the uterus to contract

36

Pineal

Latin Like a pine cone
Pertaining to the pineal gland

37

Pituit

Root
Pituitary

38

Ary

Suffix
Pertaining to

39

Pituitary

Root + Suffix
Pertaining to the pituitary gland

40

Prosta

Root
Prostate

41

Gland

Root
Gland

42

In

Suffix
Chemical

43

Prostaglandin

Root + Root + Suffix
Hormone present in many tissues, but first isolated from the prostate gland

44

Ser/o

Root + Combining Form
Serum

45

Ton

Root
Tension, pressure

46

In

Suffix
Substance

47

Serotonin

Root + Combining Form + Root + Suffix
Neurotransmitter in central and peripheral nervous systems

48

Acr/o

Root + Combining Form
Peak, highest point

49

Megaly

Suffix
Enlargement

50

Acromegaly

Root + Combining Form + Suffix
Enlargement of head, face, hands and feet due to excess growth hormone in an adult

51

Adren/o

Root + Combining Form
Adrenal gland

52

Cortic/o

Root + Combining Form
From the cortex

53

Tropic

Suffix
A turning, change

54

Adrenocorticotropic

Root + Combining Form + Root + Combining Form + Suffix
Hormone of the anterior pituitary that stimulates the cortex of the adrenal gland to produce its own hormones

55

Cortic/o

Root + Combining Form
From the cortex

56

Steroid

Suffix
Steroid

57

Corticosteroid

Root + Combining Form + Suffix
A hormone that produced by the adrenal cortex

58

Cortic/o

Root + Combining Form
From the cortex, cortex

59

Tropin

Suffix
Stimulation

60

Corticotropin

Root + Combining Form + Suffix
Pituitary hormone that stimulates the cortex of the adrenal gland to secrete cortisone

61

Cortis

Root
From the cortex

62

One

Suffix
Hormone

63

Cortisone

Root + Suffix
A corticosteroid produced in small amounts by the adrenal cortex

64

Diabetes

Diabetes Greek Siphon

65

In

Prefix
Not

66

Sipid

Root
Flavor

67

Us

Suffix
Pertaining to

68

Diabetes Insipidus

Prefix + Root + Suffix
Excretion of large amounts of dilute urine as a result of inadequate antidiuretic hormone production

69

Gonad/o

Root + Combining Form
Testis, ovary

70

Tropin

Suffix
Stimulation

71

Gonadotropin

Root + Combining Form + Suffix
Any hormone that stimulates gonadal function

72

Gonad

Gonad, Latin Seed
An organ that produces sex cells, a testis or an ovary

73

Hydr/o

Root + Combining Form
Water

74

Cortis

Root
From the cortex

75

One

Suffix
Hormone

76

Hydrocortisone

Root + Combining Form + Root + Suffix
Potent glucocorticoid with antiinflammatory properties

77

Pro

Prefix
Before

78

Lact

Root
Milk

79

In

Suffix
Substance

80

Prolactin

Prefix + Root + Suffix
Pituitary hormone that stimulates the production of milk

81

Somat/o

Root + Combining Form
The body

82

Tropin

Suffix
Stimulation

83

Somatotropin

Root + Combining Form + Suffix
Hormone of the anterior pituitary that stimulates the growth of body tissues

84

Thyr/o

Root + Combining Form
Thyroid

85

Tropin

Suffix
Hormone from the anterior pituitary gland that stimulates function of the thyroid gland

86

Calc/i

Root + Combining Form
Calcium

87

Ton

Root
Tension, pressure

88

In

Suffix
Substance

89

Calcitonin

Root + Combining Form + Root + Suffix
Hormone produced by the thyroid gland that moves calcium from blood to bones

90

Emac/i

Root + Combining Form
Make thin

91

Ation

Suffix
Process

92

Emaciation

Root + Combining Form + Suffix
Abnormal thinness

93

Emac/i

Root + Combining Form
Make thin

94

Ated

Suffix
Pertaining to a condition

95

Emaciated

Root + Combining Form + Suffix
Pertaining to or suffering from emacination

96

Para

Prefix
Adjacent, beside

97

Thyr

Root
Thyroid

98

Oid

Suffix
Resembling

99

Parathyroid

Prefix + Root + Suffix
Endocrine glands embedded in the back of the thyroid gland

100

Thymus

Greek Sweetbread
Endocrine gland located in the mediastinum

101

Thyroid

Greek An oblong shield
Endocrine gland in the neck; or a cartilage of the larynx

102

Thyr

Root
Thyroid gland

103

Ox

Root
Oxygen

104

Ine

Suffix

105

Thyroxine

Root + Root + Suffix
Thyroid hormone T4, tetraiodothyronine

106

Cretin

French Cretin
Severe congenital hypothyroidism

107

Cretin

Root
Cretin

108

Ism

Suffix
Condition, process

109

Cretinism

Root + Suffix
Condition of severe congenital hypothyroidism

110

Ex

Prefix
Out

111

Ophthalmos

Root
Eye

112

Exophthalmos

Prefix + Root
Protrusion of the eyeball

113

Goiter

Latin Throat
Enlargement of the thyroid gland

114

Graves disease

Hyperthyroidism with toxic goiter

115

Hashimoto Disease

Autoimmune disease of the thyroid gland

116

Hyper

Prefix
Excessive

117

Para

Prefix
Adjacent

118

Thyr

Root
Thyroid

119

Oid

Suffix
Resembling

120

Ism

Suffix
Condition

121

Hyperparathyroidism

Prefix + Prefix + Root + Suffix + Suffix
Excessive levels of parathyroid hormone

122

Hypo

Prefix
Deficient, below

123

Para

Prefix
Adjacent

124

Thyr

Root
Thyroid

125

Oid

Suffix
Resembling

126

Ism

Suffix
Condition

127

Hypoparathyroidism

Prefix + Prefix + Root + Suffix + Suffix
Deficient levels of parathyroid hormone

128

Hyper

Prefix
Excessive

129

Pyrex

Root
Fever

130

Ia

Suffix
Condition

131

Hyperpyrexia

Prefix + Root + Suffix
Extremely high body temperature or fever

132

Hyper

Prefix
Excessive

133

Thyr

Root
Thyroid

134

Oid

Suffix
Resembling

135

Ism

Suffix
Condition

136

Hyperthyroidism

Prefix + Prefix + Root + Suffix + Suffix
Excessive production of thyroid hormones

137

Hypo

Prefix
Below

138

Thry

Root
Thyroid

139

Oid

Suffix
Resembling

140

Ism

Suffix
Condition

141

Hypothyroidism

Prefix + Root + Suffix + Suffix
Deficient production of thyroid hormones

142

Iod

Root
Violet

143

Ine

Suffix
Pertaining to

144

Iodine

Root + Suffix
Chemical element, the lack of which causes thyroid disease

145

Myx

Prefix
Mucus

146

Edema

Root
Swelling

147

Myxedema

Prefix + Root
Nonpitting, waxy edema of the skin in hypothyroidism

148

Tetany

Greek Conclusive Tension
Severe muscle twitches, cramps, and spasms

149

Thyr

Root
Thyroid

150

Oid

Suffix
Resembling

151

Ectomy

Suffix
Surgical excision

152

Thyroidectomy

Root + Suffix + Suffix
Surgical removal of the thyroid gland

153

Thyr

Root
Thyroid

154

Oid

Suffix
Resembling

155

Itis

Suffix
Inflammation

156

Thyroiditis

Root + Suffix + Suffix
Inflammation of the thyroid gland

157

Thyr/o

Root + Combining Form
Thyroid

158

Toxic/o

Root + Combining Form
Poison

159

Sis

Suffix
Condition

160

Thyrotoxicosis

Root + Combining Form + Root + Combining Form + Suffix
Disorder produced by excessive thyroid hormone production

161

Addison disease

An autoimmune disease leading to decreased production of adrenocortical steroids

162

Ad

Prefix
To, toward

163

Ren

Root
Kidney

164

Al

Suffix
Pertaining to

165

Adrenal

Prefix + Root + Suffix
Endocrine gland on the upper pole of each kidney

166

Supra

Prefix
Above

167

Ad

Prefix
To, toward

168

Ren

Root
Kidney

169

Al

Suffix
Pertaining to

170

Suprarenal

Same as adrenal

171

Epi

Prefix
Above

172

Nephr

Root
Kidney

173

Ine

Suffix
Pertaining to

174

Epinephrine

Prefix + Root + Suffix
Main catecholamine produced by the adrenal medulla

175

Adrenaline

Same as epinephrine

176

Adren/o

Root + Combining Form
Adrenal

177

Cortic

Root
Cortex

178

Al

Suffix
Pertaining to

179

Adrenocortical

Root + Combining Form + Root + Suffix
Pertaining to the cortex of the adrenal gland

180

Ald/o

Root + Combining Form
Organic compound

181

Ster

Root
Steroid

182

One

Suffix
Hormone

183

Aldosterone

Root + Combining Form + Root + Suffix
Mineralocorticoid hormone of the adrenal cortex

184

Catechol

Root
Tyrosine containing

185

Amine

Suffix
Nitrogen-containing substance

186

Catecholamine

Root + Suffix
Major elements produced by the adrenal cortex in the stress response, include epinephrine and norepinephrine

187

Cushing Syndrome

Hypersecretion of cortisol by the adrenal gland

188

Facies

Latin Appearance
Facial features and expressions

189

Hydr/o

Root + Combining Form
Water

190

Cortis

Root
Cortisone

191

One

Suffix
Hormone

192

Hydrocortisone

Root + Combining Form + Root + Suffix
Potent glucocorticoid with anti-inflammatory properties

193

Gluc/o

Root + Combining Form
Glucose

194

Cortic

Root
Cortisone

195

Oid

Suffix
Resembling

196

Glucocorticoid

Root + Combining Form + Root + Suffix
Hormone of the adrenal cortex that helps regulate glucose metabolism

197

Idi/o

Root + Combining Form
Unkown

198

Path

Root
Disease

199

Ic

Suffix
Pertaining to

200

Idiopathic

Root + Combining Form + Root + Suffix
Pertaining to a disease of unknown etiology

201

Mineral/o

Root + Combining Form
Inorganic

202

Cortic

Root
Cortex

203

Oid

Suffix
Resemble

204

Mineralocorticoid

Root + Combining Form + Root + Suffix
Hormone of the adrenal cortex that influences sodium and potassium metabolism

205

Nor

Prefix
Normal

206

Epi

Prefix
Above

207

Nephr

Root
Kidney

208

Ine

Suffix
Pertaining to

209

Epinephrine

Prefix + Prefix + Root + Suffix
Catecholamine hormone of the adrenal gland that is a parasympathetic neurotransmitter

210

Ster

Root
Solid

211

Oid

Suffix
Resembling

212

Steroid

Root + Suffix
Large family of chemical substances found in many drugs, hormones and body components

213

Exo

Prefix
Outward

214

Crine

Root
Secrete

215

Exocrine

Prefix + Root
A gland that secretes outwardly through excretory ducts

216

Gluc

Root
Sugar, glucose

217

Agon

Suffix
To fight

218

Glucagon

Root + Suffix
Pancreatic hormone that supports blood glucose levels

219

Neo

Prefix
New

220

Gluc/o

Root + Combining Form
Sugar, glucose

221

Genesis

Suffix
Creation

222

Neoglucogenesis

Prefix + Root + Combining Form + Suffix
Formation of glucose from noncarbohydrate sources

223

Gluc

Root
Sugar, glucose

224

Ose

Suffix
Full of

225

Glucose

Root + Suffix
The final product of carbohydrate digestion and the main sugar in the blood

226

Glyc/o

Root + Combining Form
Glycogen

227

Gen/o

Root + Combining Form
Create

228

Lysis

Suffix
Separate, dissolve

229

Glycogenolysis

Root + Combining Form + Root + Combining Form + Suffix
Conversion of glycogen to glucose

230

Insul

Root
An island

231

In

Suffix
A substance

232

Insulin

Root + Suffix
Hormone produced by the islet cells of the pancreas

233

Islets of Langerhans

Areas of pancreatic cells that produce insulin and glucagon

234

Somat/o

Root + Combining Form
Body

235

Statin

Suffix
Inhibit

236

Somatostatin

Root + Combining Form + Suffix
Hormone that inhibits release of growth hormone and insulin

237

Amput

Root
To prune, lop off

238

Ation

Suffix
A process

239

Amputation

Root + Suffix
Process of removing a limb, part of a limb, a breast , or other projecting part

240

Auto

Prefix
Self, same

241

Anti

Prefix
Against

242

Body

Root
Body

243

Autoantibody

Prefix + Prefix + Root
Antibody produced in response to an antigen from the host's own tissue

244

Coma

Greek Deep sleep
State of deep unconsciousness

245

Comat

Root
Coma

246

Ose

Suffix
Full of

247

Comatose

Root + Suffix
In a state of coma

248

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes, Greek a siphon mellitus, Latin Sweetened with honey
Metabolic syndrome caused by absolute or relative insulin deficiency and/or ineffectiveness

249

Diabet

Root
Diabetes

250

Ic

Suffix
Pertaining to

251

Diabetic

Root + Suffix
Pertaining to or suffering from diabetes

252

Hyper

Prefix
Above

253

Glyc

Root
Glucose

254

Emia

Suffix
A blood condition

255

Hyperglycemia

Prefix + Root + Suffix
High level of glucose (sugar) in the blood

256

Hyper

Prefix
Above

257

Glyc

Root
Glucose

258

Emic

Suffix
Pertaining to a blood condition

259

Hyperglycemic

Prefix + Root + Suffix
Pertaining to or suffering from low blood sugar

260

Par

Prefix
Abnormal

261

Esthes

Root
Sensation

262

Ia

Suffix
Condition

263

Paresthesia

Prefix + Root + Suffix
An abnormal sensation e.g; tingling, burning, pricking

264

Poly

Prefix
Many, excessive

265

Dips

Root
Thirst

266

Ia

Suffix
Condition

267

Polydipsia

Prefix + Root + Suffix
Excessive thirst

268

Poly

Prefix
Many, excessive

269

Phag

Root
Eat

270

Ia

Suffix
Condition

271

Polyphagia

Prefix + Root + Suffix
Excessive eating

272

Poly

Prefix
Many, excessive

273

Ur

Root
Urine

274

Ia

Suffix
Condition

275

Polyuria

Prefix + Root + Suffix
Excessive production of urine

276

Retin/o

Root + Combining Form
Retina of the eye

277

Pathy

Suffix
Disease

278

Retinopathy

Root + Combining Form + Suffix
Degenerative disease of the retina

279

Acetone

Latin Vinegar
Ketone that is found in blood, urine and breath when diabetes mellitus is out of control

280

Ket/o

Root + Combining Form
Ketone

281

Acid

Root
Acid

282

Osis

Suffix
Condition

283

Ketoacidosis

Root + Combining Form + Root + Suffix
Excessive ketones in the blood making it acid

284

Ketone

Greek Acetone
Chemical formed in uncontrolled diabetes or in starvation

285

Ket

Root
Ketone

286

Osis

Suffix
Condition

287

Ketosis

Root + Suffix
Excessive production of ketones

288

Metabol

Root
Change

289

Ic

Suffix
Pertaining to

290

Acid

Root
Acid

291

Osis

Suffix
Condition

292

Metabolic acidosis

Root + Suffix + Root + Suffix
Decreased pH in blood and body tissues as a result of an upset in metabolism

293

Saline

Latin Salt
Salt solution, usually sodium chloride