Flashcards in Chapter 12-Medieval Culture Deck (102):
What was a piece of land held by one lord?
What was a man that that held a fief, and permitted another man to use it in return for certain promised services?
What was a man permitted by a lord to use the fief in return for a certain promised service?
At the top of the feudal system in each western European kingdom was a:
The king owned all the land in his kingdom, at least in theory, and part of this land called the royal or _________, he kept for personal use.
Who were the people who provided the heart of the military force of the various kingdoms in western Europe?
What was the code of conduct for the nobility and the knights?
What did each noble family have for identification that had certain colorful and unique symbols, emblems, and designs displayed on armor, shields, and banners?
What was a family's distinct display of heraldry that people could learn much about a man's family background?
Coat of arms
With invasions and warfare so prevalent, nobles built heavily fortified dwellings called:
What was the system of government that was considered a way of life based upon the ownership and use of land?
What was a form of entertainment where two knights fought to knock each other off their horses?
What was a form of entertainment where groups of knights fought a mock battle that lasted an entire day and ranged over the whole countryside?
What was a favorite kind of hunting where young hawks trained to hunt small game such as ducks or rabbits?
Nobles were entertained by __________, musicians who played simple stringed instruments and sang ballads of love and war.
The vast majority of people worked as farmers on the ___________, estates that belonged to the nobles, ranging in size from a few hundred to several thousand acres.
The farmers of the manors, called _________, lived in villages of 10 to 50 families located near the center of the manor.
The lord's fields were called _________, where the serfs had to work two to three days each week.
Proclaiming what was called __________, the church forbade fighting from Friday through Sunday of each week, and was later extended from Wednesday evening through Monday morning and would extended longer for religious seasons.
Truce of God
The church employed the ___________, in which priests denied sacraments to persons who robbed churches, took a serf's property, or killed noncombatants during battle.
Peace of God
The vast _________ of people in Europe did not live in castles and had no time or energy for games.
What did people in the Roman church of the Middle Ages call a visit to the Holy Land, especially the Christian sites in Jerusalem?
The Byzantine emperor turned to western Europe for help, and when did Pope Urban II respond by proclaiming the beginning of crusades?
In 1095, what pope responded to the Byzantine emperor's turn for help by proclaiming the beginning of the crusades?
When the Byzantine emperor turned to western Europe for help, in 1095 Pope Urban II responded by the beginning of _________ for the stated purpose of capturing the Holy Land from the Muslims and holding it for Christendom.
When emotions were so high before the first official crusade, a group of 15,000 to 20,000 people, mostly simple farmers, embarked on the ___________, where they were utterly destroyed by the Turks.
In the official ____________, where some 50,000 or more crusaders, including some 4,500 knights, they recaptured Asia Minor for the Byzantine Empire within a year.
The two powerful monarchs Louis VII of France and Conrad III of Germany led what crusade?
What energetic monk was called upon by the pope to preach of the need for Europeans to take up the cross again and persuaded two powerful monarchs to lead the Second Crusade?
Bernard of Clairvaux
What to powerful monarchs led the Second Crusade after being persuaded by the energetic monk Bernard of Clairvaux?
The Muslims grew stronger and more unified under their gifted leader __________, the renowned sultan of Egypt.
Which crusade had English King Richard I, German king Frederick Barbarossa, and French king Philip Augustus and accomplished very little?
What German king who took part in the Third Crusade and drowned in Asia Minor, prompting most of his soldiers to return home?
Which king who took part in the Third Crusade and led his men back to Europe after a minor victory for the crusaders at the seaport of Acre on the coast of Palestine?
Which king who took part in the Third Crusade was given the title the Lion-Hearted for his heroic exploits in Palestine?
For his heroic exploits in Palestine, Richard was given the title the:
Which crusade never even reached the Holy Land but instead plundered Constantinople, a city of Christendom?
Which crusade occurred in 1212, when fanatical preaching instigated about 30,000 French children to march on the Holy Land but failed miserably?
By what year were Muslims masters of the Holy Land?
What were the towns of middle class that sprang up beside fortresses called?
What were those living in these communities called burgs called?
What was the class that was between the nobility and the peasants called?
What were the international events in Europe that brought merchants from as far away as Egypt and Scotland to purchase such items as woolen products from Flanders and leather goods from Spain and to have their loans and credit transfers arranged by Italian bankers?
What was an early form of trade unionism and consisted of voluntary associations among merchants, artisans, and craftsmen?
Some cities combined to form trade alliances, such as the ____________, a confederation of northern German towns formed during the 13th century and eventually embraced some 85 cities.
One of the earliest industries in Europe was the manufacture of woolen goods in _________, a low-lying region located in western Belgium, just across the English Channel from the British Isles.
Who was the leading banking family who ruled Florence, Italy, and influenced European politics and economics from the 1300s until the 1700s?
European architects developed a new architectural style called ___________, characterized by the use of thick, massive walls and small windows with rounded arches.
In northern Europe a new style of architecture known as ____________, which had tall walls with many pointed windows, and were noted for their elaborate use of steeples and points.
What Cathedral in Paris, France is perhaps the best example of Gothic architecture?
What was a form of bubonic plague where infected fleas and rats spread the disease throughout the growing urban areas because people did not understand basic sanitation estimated in 1334 and 1351?
How many people perished from the Black Death?
1/3 to 1/2 of Europe's population, approx. 25,000,000 people
The growing need for men with special training in such professions as law and medicine led to the founding of:
What was the first medieval university in Italy in 1060?
What university was John Wycliffe an official , and was founded in 1140?
University of Oxford
What was the university that followed the University of Oxford in 1200?
University of Cambridge
What university gained great prestige between 1259 and 1281 with programs in theology, law, medicine, and philosophy?
University of Paris
What was the oldest German university, founded in 1348?
University of Prague
The medieval curriculum was divided into two parts; which part consisted of grammar, rhetoric , and logic?
The medieval curriculum was divided into two parts; which part consisted of arithmetic, music, geometry, and astronomy?
What was the approach to learning that attempted to synthesize Greek philosophy with Romanism?
Who were the two greatest scholastics of the medieval culture?
William of Ockham
What philosophy was created by Thomas Aquinas, that stated the totality of man's sinful nature and his dependence upon God for everything?
Who invented Thomism?
The most outstanding scholar at Oxford University during the 14th century?
Who was the English Franciscan friar who emphasized observation and experimentation as the source of true knowledge about nature, and was a medieval forerunner of modern science?
Who began the first translation of the Bible into English?
What were the followers of Wycliffe called?
For all his work, John Wycliffe is known as the:
"Morning Star of the Reformation"
Wycliffe's writings found their way to _________ in central Europe, where they helped John Huss see the light.
Wycliffe's writings found their way to Bohemia in central Europe, where they helped who see the light?
What were the followers of John Huss called?
In 1380, who was the Dutch contemporary of John Wycliffe who founded and organized the Brethren of the Common Life?
What did Gerhard Groote found and organize in 1380?
Brethren of the Common Life
One reformer who exposed hypocrisy in the Roman church was Jerome _________, a Roman priest who lived in Florence, Italy.
The beginnings of modern literature took place in the 13th century with the Italian _________, who wrote Divine Comedy.
The beginnings of modern literature took place in the 13th century with the Italian Dante, whose ___________ is one of the few pieces of medieval literature that is still widely read.
Who was recognized in the 14th century as one of England's five greatest poets who wrote The Canterbury Tales?
Geoffrey Chaucer, recognized as one of England's five great poets, wrote ____________, one of the first great works of literature in the English language.
The Canterbury Tales
Around the year 1300, a great enthusiasm for classical Greek and Latin literature sprang up in Italy. This developed into the __________ (1350-1600).
In what years did the Italian Renaissance exist?
The Italian Renaissance revived an emphasis on the _________, subjects such as history, grammar, rhetoric, and poetry.
What term,at first, meant only intense interest in the subjects of humanities?
Who was the 14th-century author who was called the "Father of Humanism" and wrote Letters to Ancient Authors?
Who was a 14th century Italian author who was the first great writer of prose in a modern language and wrote The Decameron?
The only book of lasting importance produced by the Italian Renaissance was __________, a book of politics written in 1513 by Niccolò Machiavelli.
The only book of lasting importance produced by the Italian Renaissance was The Prince, a book on politics written in 1513 by:
Many supporters of the Italian Renaissance were not artists but displayed their appreciation of art as ________, people who use their own money to support the arts.
The art of painting was greatly changed through the efforts of 14th century Florentine artist _________, who chose to paint subjects inspired by the Bible, and one of his famous paintings is The Last Judgement.
Who personified the Italian Renaissance's new ideal of a man, was called the Renaissance man, and as a painter is best remembered for his Mona Lisa?
Leonardo de Vinci
Leonardo de Vinci was called _________, which means one who displays his talents in all fields.
What is the painting by Leonardo de Vinci that portrayed Christ and His disciples in the upper room?
The Last Supper
Who was the artist from the Italian Renaissance who was known for his brilliant use of color, and some of his most famous paintings are the Sistine Madonna and The School of Athens?
Who was the artist of the Italian Renaissance who may have been the greatest artist of the Renaissance perhaps of all time and his most famous paintings are in the ceiling and walls of the Sistine Chapel at the Vatican in Rome?
Michelangelo's most famous paintings are on the ceiling and walls of the _________ at the Vatican in Rome.
Michelangelo is especially known for his marble statues, including those of the two biblical leaders:
David and Moses
Who invented the movable-type printing press in about 1440 in Mainz, Germany?
About when did Johann Gutenberg invent the movable-type printing press?
Johann Gutenberg invented the ___________ at about 1440 in Mainz, Germany.
movable-type printing press
Who is considered to be the greatest Italian lyric poet of the 16th century?
When did Gutenberg produce the first printed edition of the Bible?