Chapter 12-Medieval Culture Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 12-Medieval Culture Deck (102):
1

What was a piece of land held by one lord?

Fief

2

What was a man that that held a fief, and permitted another man to use it in return for certain promised services?

lord

3

What was a man permitted by a lord to use the fief in return for a certain promised service?

Vassal

4

At the top of the feudal system in each western European kingdom was a:

King

5

The king owned all the land in his kingdom, at least in theory, and part of this land called the royal or _________, he kept for personal use.

Crown land

6

Who were the people who provided the heart of the military force of the various kingdoms in western Europe?

Knights

7

What was the code of conduct for the nobility and the knights?

Chivalry

8

What did each noble family have for identification that had certain colorful and unique symbols, emblems, and designs displayed on armor, shields, and banners?

Heraldry

9

What was a family's distinct display of heraldry that people could learn much about a man's family background?

Coat of arms

10

With invasions and warfare so prevalent, nobles built heavily fortified dwellings called:

Castles

11

What was the system of government that was considered a way of life based upon the ownership and use of land?

Feudalism

12

What was a form of entertainment where two knights fought to knock each other off their horses?

Joust

13

What was a form of entertainment where groups of knights fought a mock battle that lasted an entire day and ranged over the whole countryside?

Tournaments

14

What was a favorite kind of hunting where young hawks trained to hunt small game such as ducks or rabbits?

Falconry

15

Nobles were entertained by __________, musicians who played simple stringed instruments and sang ballads of love and war.

Ministrels

16

The vast majority of people worked as farmers on the ___________, estates that belonged to the nobles, ranging in size from a few hundred to several thousand acres.

Manors

17

The farmers of the manors, called _________, lived in villages of 10 to 50 families located near the center of the manor.

Serfs

18

The lord's fields were called _________, where the serfs had to work two to three days each week.

Demesne

19

Proclaiming what was called __________, the church forbade fighting from Friday through Sunday of each week, and was later extended from Wednesday evening through Monday morning and would extended longer for religious seasons.

Truce of God

20

The church employed the ___________, in which priests denied sacraments to persons who robbed churches, took a serf's property, or killed noncombatants during battle.

Peace of God

21

The vast _________ of people in Europe did not live in castles and had no time or energy for games.

Majority

22

What did people in the Roman church of the Middle Ages call a visit to the Holy Land, especially the Christian sites in Jerusalem?

Pilgrimages

23

The Byzantine emperor turned to western Europe for help, and when did Pope Urban II respond by proclaiming the beginning of crusades?

1095

24

In 1095, what pope responded to the Byzantine emperor's turn for help by proclaiming the beginning of the crusades?

Urban II

25

When the Byzantine emperor turned to western Europe for help, in 1095 Pope Urban II responded by the beginning of _________ for the stated purpose of capturing the Holy Land from the Muslims and holding it for Christendom.

Crusades

26

When emotions were so high before the first official crusade, a group of 15,000 to 20,000 people, mostly simple farmers, embarked on the ___________, where they were utterly destroyed by the Turks.

Peasant's Crusade

27

In the official ____________, where some 50,000 or more crusaders, including some 4,500 knights, they recaptured Asia Minor for the Byzantine Empire within a year.

First Crusade

28

The two powerful monarchs Louis VII of France and Conrad III of Germany led what crusade?

Second Crusade

29

What energetic monk was called upon by the pope to preach of the need for Europeans to take up the cross again and persuaded two powerful monarchs to lead the Second Crusade?

Bernard of Clairvaux

30

What to powerful monarchs led the Second Crusade after being persuaded by the energetic monk Bernard of Clairvaux?

Louis VII
Conrad III

31

The Muslims grew stronger and more unified under their gifted leader __________, the renowned sultan of Egypt.

Saladin

32

Which crusade had English King Richard I, German king Frederick Barbarossa, and French king Philip Augustus and accomplished very little?

Third Crusade

33

What German king who took part in the Third Crusade and drowned in Asia Minor, prompting most of his soldiers to return home?

Frederick Barbarossa

34

Which king who took part in the Third Crusade and led his men back to Europe after a minor victory for the crusaders at the seaport of Acre on the coast of Palestine?

Philip Augustus

35

Which king who took part in the Third Crusade was given the title the Lion-Hearted for his heroic exploits in Palestine?

Richard I

36

For his heroic exploits in Palestine, Richard was given the title the:

Lion-Hearted

37

Which crusade never even reached the Holy Land but instead plundered Constantinople, a city of Christendom?

Fourth Crusade

38

Which crusade occurred in 1212, when fanatical preaching instigated about 30,000 French children to march on the Holy Land but failed miserably?

Children's Crusades

39

By what year were Muslims masters of the Holy Land?

1291

40

What were the towns of middle class that sprang up beside fortresses called?

Burgs

41

What were those living in these communities called burgs called?

Burghers

42

What was the class that was between the nobility and the peasants called?

Middle class

43

What were the international events in Europe that brought merchants from as far away as Egypt and Scotland to purchase such items as woolen products from Flanders and leather goods from Spain and to have their loans and credit transfers arranged by Italian bankers?

Trade fairs

44

What was an early form of trade unionism and consisted of voluntary associations among merchants, artisans, and craftsmen?

Guilds

45

Some cities combined to form trade alliances, such as the ____________, a confederation of northern German towns formed during the 13th century and eventually embraced some 85 cities.

Hanseatic League

46

One of the earliest industries in Europe was the manufacture of woolen goods in _________, a low-lying region located in western Belgium, just across the English Channel from the British Isles.

Flanders

47

Who was the leading banking family who ruled Florence, Italy, and influenced European politics and economics from the 1300s until the 1700s?

Medici

48

European architects developed a new architectural style called ___________, characterized by the use of thick, massive walls and small windows with rounded arches.

Romanesque

49

In northern Europe a new style of architecture known as ____________, which had tall walls with many pointed windows, and were noted for their elaborate use of steeples and points.

Gothic

50

What Cathedral in Paris, France is perhaps the best example of Gothic architecture?

Notre Dame

51

What was a form of bubonic plague where infected fleas and rats spread the disease throughout the growing urban areas because people did not understand basic sanitation estimated in 1334 and 1351?

Black Death

52

How many people perished from the Black Death?

1/3 to 1/2 of Europe's population, approx. 25,000,000 people

53

The growing need for men with special training in such professions as law and medicine led to the founding of:

Universities

54

What was the first medieval university in Italy in 1060?

Salerno

55

What university was John Wycliffe an official , and was founded in 1140?

University of Oxford

56

What was the university that followed the University of Oxford in 1200?

University of Cambridge

57

What university gained great prestige between 1259 and 1281 with programs in theology, law, medicine, and philosophy?

University of Paris

58

What was the oldest German university, founded in 1348?

University of Prague

59

The medieval curriculum was divided into two parts; which part consisted of grammar, rhetoric , and logic?

Trivium

60

The medieval curriculum was divided into two parts; which part consisted of arithmetic, music, geometry, and astronomy?

Quadrivium

61

What was the approach to learning that attempted to synthesize Greek philosophy with Romanism?

Scholasticism

62

Who were the two greatest scholastics of the medieval culture?

Thomas Aquinas
William of Ockham

63

What philosophy was created by Thomas Aquinas, that stated the totality of man's sinful nature and his dependence upon God for everything?

Thomism

64

Who invented Thomism?

Thomas Aquinas

65

The most outstanding scholar at Oxford University during the 14th century?

John Wycliffe

66

Who was the English Franciscan friar who emphasized observation and experimentation as the source of true knowledge about nature, and was a medieval forerunner of modern science?

Roger Bacon

67

Who began the first translation of the Bible into English?

Wycliffe

68

What were the followers of Wycliffe called?

Lollards

69

For all his work, John Wycliffe is known as the:

"Morning Star of the Reformation"

70

Wycliffe's writings found their way to _________ in central Europe, where they helped John Huss see the light.

Bohemia

71

Wycliffe's writings found their way to Bohemia in central Europe, where they helped who see the light?

John Huss

72

What were the followers of John Huss called?

Hussites

73

In 1380, who was the Dutch contemporary of John Wycliffe who founded and organized the Brethren of the Common Life?

Gerhard Groote

74

What did Gerhard Groote found and organize in 1380?

Brethren of the Common Life

75

One reformer who exposed hypocrisy in the Roman church was Jerome _________, a Roman priest who lived in Florence, Italy.

Savanorola

76

The beginnings of modern literature took place in the 13th century with the Italian _________, who wrote Divine Comedy.

Dante

77

The beginnings of modern literature took place in the 13th century with the Italian Dante, whose ___________ is one of the few pieces of medieval literature that is still widely read.

Divine Comedy

78

Who was recognized in the 14th century as one of England's five greatest poets who wrote The Canterbury Tales?

Geoffrey Chaucer

79

Geoffrey Chaucer, recognized as one of England's five great poets, wrote ____________, one of the first great works of literature in the English language.

The Canterbury Tales

80

Around the year 1300, a great enthusiasm for classical Greek and Latin literature sprang up in Italy. This developed into the __________ (1350-1600).

Italian Renaissance

81

In what years did the Italian Renaissance exist?

1350-1600

82

The Italian Renaissance revived an emphasis on the _________, subjects such as history, grammar, rhetoric, and poetry.

Humanities

83

What term,at first, meant only intense interest in the subjects of humanities?

Humanism

84

Who was the 14th-century author who was called the "Father of Humanism" and wrote Letters to Ancient Authors?

Petrarch

85

Who was a 14th century Italian author who was the first great writer of prose in a modern language and wrote The Decameron?

Boccaccio

86

The only book of lasting importance produced by the Italian Renaissance was __________, a book of politics written in 1513 by Niccolò Machiavelli.

The Prince

87

The only book of lasting importance produced by the Italian Renaissance was The Prince, a book on politics written in 1513 by:

Niccolò Machiavelli

88

Many supporters of the Italian Renaissance were not artists but displayed their appreciation of art as ________, people who use their own money to support the arts.

Patrons

89

The art of painting was greatly changed through the efforts of 14th century Florentine artist _________, who chose to paint subjects inspired by the Bible, and one of his famous paintings is The Last Judgement.

Giotto

90

Who personified the Italian Renaissance's new ideal of a man, was called the Renaissance man, and as a painter is best remembered for his Mona Lisa?

Leonardo de Vinci

91

Leonardo de Vinci was called _________, which means one who displays his talents in all fields.

Renaissance man

92

What is the painting by Leonardo de Vinci that portrayed Christ and His disciples in the upper room?

The Last Supper

93

Who was the artist from the Italian Renaissance who was known for his brilliant use of color, and some of his most famous paintings are the Sistine Madonna and The School of Athens?

Raphael

94

Who was the artist of the Italian Renaissance who may have been the greatest artist of the Renaissance perhaps of all time and his most famous paintings are in the ceiling and walls of the Sistine Chapel at the Vatican in Rome?

Michelangelo

95

Michelangelo's most famous paintings are on the ceiling and walls of the _________ at the Vatican in Rome.

Sistine Chapel

96

Michelangelo is especially known for his marble statues, including those of the two biblical leaders:

David and Moses

97

Who invented the movable-type printing press in about 1440 in Mainz, Germany?

Johann Gutenberg

98

About when did Johann Gutenberg invent the movable-type printing press?

1440

99

Johann Gutenberg invented the ___________ at about 1440 in Mainz, Germany.

movable-type printing press

100

Who is considered to be the greatest Italian lyric poet of the 16th century?

Michelangelo

101

When did Gutenberg produce the first printed edition of the Bible?

1456

102

What was the first printed edition of the Bible called?

Gutenberg Bible