Chapter 19-The Age Of Industry Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 19-The Age Of Industry Deck (78):
1

The Industrial Revolution began what is known as the _________________ in Europe and America, a period of great progress for Western civilization.

Age of Industry

2

What were the approximate years of the Age of Industry?

1760-1900

3

Throughout most of world history, the majority of people have engaged in ______________---growing just enough food to feed their own families.

"Subsistence farming"

4

What is the way of life based on the biblical teaching that God expects all men to work and that all work is a noble duty to be performed toward God?

Protestant work ethic

5

Who invented the seed drill, introduced at about 1701, and developed by the English?

Jethro Tull

6

In 1837, American _____________ patented his famous steel plow.

John Deer

7

What did Jethro Tull introduce at about 1701, that was developed by the English?

Seed drill

8

What did John Deere patent in 1837?

Steel plow

9

Who, in 1834, introduced hue reaper to American farmers, enabling them to harvest six times more land than they could harvest by hand?

Cyrus McCormick

10

What did Cyrus McCormick introduce in 1834?

Reaper

11

What machine made it possible to separate grain from chaff more efficiently?

Thresher

12

By 1900, the reaper and the thresher had been joined in one machine called the:

Combine

13

What was one indirect but profound result of the spiritual revivals that swept Great Britain and America in the 18th century, that was a time of dramatic changes in agriculture, industry, and technology?

"Industrial Revolution"

14

Before the Age of Industry, manufacturing was carried out under a process known as the _________________, where work was done in small private shops.

Domestic system

15

What was the system that replaced the domestic system, in which ever-increasing numbers of people were employed to produce manufactured goods in a systematic way for wages?

Factory system

16

Modern scholarship shows that ______________ (wages as compared to the cost of living) increased in England during the Age of Industry.

"Real wages"

17

Who invented the flying shuttle in 1733?

John Kay

18

In 1733, John Kay invented the _____________, which allowed one person to weave bolts of cloth; before, two people had been needed.

Flying shuttle

19

Who invented the spinning jenny in 1764?

James Hargreaves

20

In 1764, James Hargreaves invented the ______________, which automatically spun fiber into thread.

Spinning jenny

21

Who invented the water-powered spinning frame in 1769?

Richard Arkwright

22

In 1769, Richard Arkwright invented the water-powered ________________, on which cotton alone could be spun into thread.

Spinning frame

23

Who combined the spinning jenny and the spinning frame into the spinning mule in 1779?

Samuel Crompton

24

In 1779, Samuel Crompton combined the spinning jenny and the spinning frame into the:

Spinning mule

25

Who patented the power loom to replace hand weaving in 1785?

Edmund Cartwright

26

In 1785, Edmund Cartwright patented a ____________ to replace hand weaving.

Power loom

27

What forced many peasant farmers off the land, enabled landholders to control breeding livestock and thereby to increase the size and quality of livestock as well as milk production, and controlled what the animals ate?

Enclosure Movement

28

Who introduced the cotton gin in 1793?

Eli Whitney

29

In 1793, Eli Whitney introduced the ___________, making it possible for one plantation slave to do the work that had previously required 50 slaves.

Cotton gin

30

Who was the Scotsman who developed the first commercial steam engine in 1776?

James Watt

31

In 1776, James Watt developed the first commercial, practical, coal-burning:

Steam engine

32

Who was the English chemist who invented the miner's safety lamp in 1815?

Sir Humphrey Davy

33

In 1815, Sir Humphrey Davy invented the ________________, the most important invention for the safety of coal miners.

Miner's safety lamp

34

What two men invented Bessemer process around the 1850s?

Henry Bessemer
William Kelly

35

Henry Bessemer and William Kelly discovered what essentially same inexpensive process for converting iron into steel by using currents of air?

Bessemer process

36

What was the canal that was completed in 1825, that connected Lake Erie to the Hudson River?

Erie Canal

37

What canal was completed in 1869, joining the Mediterranean Sea and the Indian Ocean by way of the Red Sea, and flourishing international trade?

Suez Canal

38

What was the ship built by the Americans in the 19th century, and had long, lean sailing vessels known for their tremendous speed on the high seas?

Clipper ships

39

Who invented the first practical steamship that surpassed the clipper ships in the 19th century?

Robert Fulton

40

What was the first practical steamship named, that sailed 150 miles up the Hudson River in 1807?

Clermont

41

Who built the first practical steam-powered locomotive in 1814?

George Stephenson

42

Who perfected a gasoline-fueled internal combustion engine in 1886 in Germany?

Gottlieb Daimler

43

In Germany, Gottlieb Daimler perfected a gasoline-fueled ___________________ in 1886.

Internal combustion engine

44

Who was the German who unveiled his diesel engine in 1892?

Rudolf Diesel

45

In 1892, the German Rudolf Diesel unveiled his __________________, which was powerful enough for larger vehicles such as locomotives and even ships?

Diesel engine

46

What two men (the first being from Germany, and the second being from the United States) developed the first modern automobiles?

Karl Benz
Henry Ford

47

Who was the American inventor who perfected the electric telegraph in 1844?

Samuel Morse

48

In 1844, American inventor Samuel Morse perfected the ________________, an instrument capable of transmitting a code of "dots and dashes" over electrical wires.

Electric telegraph

49

Who was the American who succeeded in 1866 in laying the first successful transatlantic telegraph cable?

Cyrus Field

50

Who was one of the inventors who revolutionized communications, and life during the age of industry, and patented his first telephone in 1876?

Alexander Graham Bell

51

In 1876, Alexander Graham Bell, patented his first:

Telephone

52

Who invented the wireless telegraph in 1896, which eventually lead to the development of radio?

Guglielmo Marconi

53

Who was the English chemist who proposed the atomic theory in 1803?

John Dalton

54

In 1803, English chemist John Dalton proposed the _____________, which stated that all matter is composed of sub-molecular particles called atoms.

Atomic theory

55

Who was the English physicist who discovered the relationship between electricity and magnetism, which led to the invention of the electric motor and the electric generator?

Michael Faraday

56

What was the English scientist who helped formulate the laws of thermodynamics and introduced an absolute scale for measuring temperature?

Lord Kelvin

57

Who was the Scottish physicist who laid the foundation for electrical engineering by mathematically explaining electrical force and correctly theorizing that electromagnetic energy travels as a "wave"?

James Clerk Maxwell

58

Who was the French physicist and his Polish-born wife who experimented with radioactivity and discovered two new elements--polonium and radium?

Pierre and Marie Curie

59

Who was the English physician who developed the first vaccine after observing that people inoculated with the harmless cowpox virus built up an immunity against the deadly smallpox virus in 1796?

Edward Jenner

60

Probably the most important work of the 19th century in the field of human health was done by French biochemist ________________, who developed the germ theory disease.

Louis Pasteur

61

Louis Pasteur developed the ____________________, which stated that every infectious disease is caused by a specific germ.

Germ theory of disease

62

Who was perhaps the greatest inventor in history, established the first modern scientific laboratory, and patented 1,093 inventions, and his invention of the incandescent electric light bulb in 1879 had the most profound effect on society?

Thomas Alva Edison

63

Out of so of Thomas Edison's inventions, what had the most profound effect upon modern society?

Incandescent electric light bulb

64

Who was the English physician who introduced the use of antiseptics in 1867, to fight germs following surgery, greatly reducing the number of deaths caused by infection of wounds and incisions?

Joseph Lister

65

It is estimated that the ___________________---the total output of goods and services, increased 44% between 1874 and 1883 and then continued to expand at a slower rate.

Gross National Product (GNP)

66

What is the economic system in which there is private ownership of the means of production, investments are determined by private decisions, and prices, production, and the distribution of goods are determined mainly in a free market?

Capitalism

67

Capitalism is also called ________________ because it leaves the individual free to make something of himself if he has the enterprise to do it.

Free enterprise

68

By the beginning of the 20th century, the United States had clearly displayed its new position as a world power by defeating Spain in the __________________ in 1898.

Spanish-American War

69

The United States proved her status as a world power with the building of the ________________, greatly expanding American influence in the Western Hemisphere and the Pacific.

Panama Canal

70

Who was the industrial giant of the oil industry, who became famous and immensely rich?

John D. Rockefeller

71

Who was the industrial giant in the steel industry, who became famous and immensely rich?

Andrew Carnegie

72

Who was the industrial giant in banking, who became famous and immensely rich?

J. P. Morgan

73

In addition to the primary benefits that the entrepreneurs brought to the world through their business enterprises, many of these men also used their accumulated wealth for ________________, "love of mankind."

Philanthropy

74

Who was the 18th-century Scottish philosopher who called for the alternative system known as free trade, and and published his work, Wealth of Nations?

Adam Smith

75

Up up I the late 1700s, European countries had practiced a system known as ______________, where the government controlled the nation's trade through tariffs and regulations intended to feed the national treasury.

Mercantilism

76

What was the system called for by Adam Smith, that is trade without government interference, and was to replace mercantilism?

Free trade

77

In what year did Adam Smith publish his book, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, usually called Wealth of Nations?

1776

78

In 1776, Adam Smith published his famous work, ________________, which espoused the philosophy that individual freedom in economics leads to the greatest good not only for the individual but for society as a whole?

Wealth of Nations