Flashcards in Chapter 19-The Age Of Industry Deck (78):
The Industrial Revolution began what is known as the _________________ in Europe and America, a period of great progress for Western civilization.
Age of Industry
What were the approximate years of the Age of Industry?
Throughout most of world history, the majority of people have engaged in ______________---growing just enough food to feed their own families.
What is the way of life based on the biblical teaching that God expects all men to work and that all work is a noble duty to be performed toward God?
Protestant work ethic
Who invented the seed drill, introduced at about 1701, and developed by the English?
In 1837, American _____________ patented his famous steel plow.
What did Jethro Tull introduce at about 1701, that was developed by the English?
What did John Deere patent in 1837?
Who, in 1834, introduced hue reaper to American farmers, enabling them to harvest six times more land than they could harvest by hand?
What did Cyrus McCormick introduce in 1834?
What machine made it possible to separate grain from chaff more efficiently?
By 1900, the reaper and the thresher had been joined in one machine called the:
What was one indirect but profound result of the spiritual revivals that swept Great Britain and America in the 18th century, that was a time of dramatic changes in agriculture, industry, and technology?
Before the Age of Industry, manufacturing was carried out under a process known as the _________________, where work was done in small private shops.
What was the system that replaced the domestic system, in which ever-increasing numbers of people were employed to produce manufactured goods in a systematic way for wages?
Modern scholarship shows that ______________ (wages as compared to the cost of living) increased in England during the Age of Industry.
Who invented the flying shuttle in 1733?
In 1733, John Kay invented the _____________, which allowed one person to weave bolts of cloth; before, two people had been needed.
Who invented the spinning jenny in 1764?
In 1764, James Hargreaves invented the ______________, which automatically spun fiber into thread.
Who invented the water-powered spinning frame in 1769?
In 1769, Richard Arkwright invented the water-powered ________________, on which cotton alone could be spun into thread.
Who combined the spinning jenny and the spinning frame into the spinning mule in 1779?
In 1779, Samuel Crompton combined the spinning jenny and the spinning frame into the:
Who patented the power loom to replace hand weaving in 1785?
In 1785, Edmund Cartwright patented a ____________ to replace hand weaving.
What forced many peasant farmers off the land, enabled landholders to control breeding livestock and thereby to increase the size and quality of livestock as well as milk production, and controlled what the animals ate?
Who introduced the cotton gin in 1793?
In 1793, Eli Whitney introduced the ___________, making it possible for one plantation slave to do the work that had previously required 50 slaves.
Who was the Scotsman who developed the first commercial steam engine in 1776?
In 1776, James Watt developed the first commercial, practical, coal-burning:
Who was the English chemist who invented the miner's safety lamp in 1815?
Sir Humphrey Davy
In 1815, Sir Humphrey Davy invented the ________________, the most important invention for the safety of coal miners.
Miner's safety lamp
What two men invented Bessemer process around the 1850s?
Henry Bessemer and William Kelly discovered what essentially same inexpensive process for converting iron into steel by using currents of air?
What was the canal that was completed in 1825, that connected Lake Erie to the Hudson River?
What canal was completed in 1869, joining the Mediterranean Sea and the Indian Ocean by way of the Red Sea, and flourishing international trade?
What was the ship built by the Americans in the 19th century, and had long, lean sailing vessels known for their tremendous speed on the high seas?
Who invented the first practical steamship that surpassed the clipper ships in the 19th century?
What was the first practical steamship named, that sailed 150 miles up the Hudson River in 1807?
Who built the first practical steam-powered locomotive in 1814?
Who perfected a gasoline-fueled internal combustion engine in 1886 in Germany?
In Germany, Gottlieb Daimler perfected a gasoline-fueled ___________________ in 1886.
Internal combustion engine
Who was the German who unveiled his diesel engine in 1892?
In 1892, the German Rudolf Diesel unveiled his __________________, which was powerful enough for larger vehicles such as locomotives and even ships?
What two men (the first being from Germany, and the second being from the United States) developed the first modern automobiles?
Who was the American inventor who perfected the electric telegraph in 1844?
In 1844, American inventor Samuel Morse perfected the ________________, an instrument capable of transmitting a code of "dots and dashes" over electrical wires.
Who was the American who succeeded in 1866 in laying the first successful transatlantic telegraph cable?
Who was one of the inventors who revolutionized communications, and life during the age of industry, and patented his first telephone in 1876?
Alexander Graham Bell
In 1876, Alexander Graham Bell, patented his first:
Who invented the wireless telegraph in 1896, which eventually lead to the development of radio?
Who was the English chemist who proposed the atomic theory in 1803?
In 1803, English chemist John Dalton proposed the _____________, which stated that all matter is composed of sub-molecular particles called atoms.
Who was the English physicist who discovered the relationship between electricity and magnetism, which led to the invention of the electric motor and the electric generator?
What was the English scientist who helped formulate the laws of thermodynamics and introduced an absolute scale for measuring temperature?
Who was the Scottish physicist who laid the foundation for electrical engineering by mathematically explaining electrical force and correctly theorizing that electromagnetic energy travels as a "wave"?
James Clerk Maxwell
Who was the French physicist and his Polish-born wife who experimented with radioactivity and discovered two new elements--polonium and radium?
Pierre and Marie Curie
Who was the English physician who developed the first vaccine after observing that people inoculated with the harmless cowpox virus built up an immunity against the deadly smallpox virus in 1796?
Probably the most important work of the 19th century in the field of human health was done by French biochemist ________________, who developed the germ theory disease.
Louis Pasteur developed the ____________________, which stated that every infectious disease is caused by a specific germ.
Germ theory of disease
Who was perhaps the greatest inventor in history, established the first modern scientific laboratory, and patented 1,093 inventions, and his invention of the incandescent electric light bulb in 1879 had the most profound effect on society?
Thomas Alva Edison
Out of so of Thomas Edison's inventions, what had the most profound effect upon modern society?
Incandescent electric light bulb
Who was the English physician who introduced the use of antiseptics in 1867, to fight germs following surgery, greatly reducing the number of deaths caused by infection of wounds and incisions?
It is estimated that the ___________________---the total output of goods and services, increased 44% between 1874 and 1883 and then continued to expand at a slower rate.
Gross National Product (GNP)
What is the economic system in which there is private ownership of the means of production, investments are determined by private decisions, and prices, production, and the distribution of goods are determined mainly in a free market?
Capitalism is also called ________________ because it leaves the individual free to make something of himself if he has the enterprise to do it.
By the beginning of the 20th century, the United States had clearly displayed its new position as a world power by defeating Spain in the __________________ in 1898.
The United States proved her status as a world power with the building of the ________________, greatly expanding American influence in the Western Hemisphere and the Pacific.
Who was the industrial giant of the oil industry, who became famous and immensely rich?
John D. Rockefeller
Who was the industrial giant in the steel industry, who became famous and immensely rich?
Who was the industrial giant in banking, who became famous and immensely rich?
J. P. Morgan
In addition to the primary benefits that the entrepreneurs brought to the world through their business enterprises, many of these men also used their accumulated wealth for ________________, "love of mankind."
Who was the 18th-century Scottish philosopher who called for the alternative system known as free trade, and and published his work, Wealth of Nations?
Up up I the late 1700s, European countries had practiced a system known as ______________, where the government controlled the nation's trade through tariffs and regulations intended to feed the national treasury.
What was the system called for by Adam Smith, that is trade without government interference, and was to replace mercantilism?
In what year did Adam Smith publish his book, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, usually called Wealth of Nations?