Chapter 7-Greece:Home Of Beauty Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7-Greece:Home Of Beauty Deck (111):
1

The monarch was advised by:

The Council of the Elders
Assembly-a mass meeting where all citizens gathered about the king and the elders to discuss political affairs

2

Definition of aristocracy:

Rule by the "best"

3

Definition of oligarchy:

Rule by the few

4

Definition of tyranny:

Rule by one man who has seized power by rebellion and insurrection.

5

Definition of democracy:

Rule by the many or the common people.

6

The city of Sparta's chief accomplishment as the formation of:

Peloponnesian League-an alliance with Corinth,Megara,and other cities in the Peloponnesus.

7

Describe the Peloponnesian League.

The Peloponnesian League was an alliance with Corinth,Megara,and other cities in the Peloponnesus.

8

Which Athenian archon was directed to prepare a code of law at about 620 B.C.?

Draco

9

Which Athenian archon was elected in 594 B.C.,and repealed the harsh edicts of Draco?

Solon

10

Only archons in Athens were eligible for:

Court of Areopagus

11

Describe the Court of Areopagus.

This court repealed laws hurtful to state,looked after public morals,and rebuked any person who lived in a manner unworthy of an Athenian.

12

In 586 B.C.,who seized control of the city and became the first tyrant of Athens?

Peisistratus

13

The rugged and mountainous______ extends into the Mediterranean Sea from southeastern Europe.

Balkan Peninsula

14

The two prominent regions of ancient Greece:

Attica and the Peloponnesus

15

The earliest cultures of Europe developed along the shores and on the islands of the Aegean Sea and are known as the:

Aegean Civilization

16

Chief among the Aegean Civilization were:

Minoans-on the island of Crete
Mycenaeans-on the Greek mainland
Trojans-of the city of Troy

17

Definition of monarchy:

Rule by one

18

The Mycenaeans were named for the city of:

Mycenae

19

The Mycenaean culture was invaded between 1100 and 800 B.C. by a new wave of barbarian invaders called:

Dorians

20

Many of the Mycenaeans escaped from the Dorians to Asia Minor and Attica where they became known as:

Ionians

21

The Greeks of classical times who made such great contributions to Western civilization were the:

Hellenes

22

A single poet who has never had such an influence on the thinking of a people as_____on the Greeks. He also wrote Iliad,Odyssey,and invented the Olympian gods.

Homer

23

In 508 B.C.,who emerged as the new champion of the common people,was an aristocrat,and extended citizenship to more of the people and raised membership in the council to 500?

Cleisthenes

24

Athenian democracy was brought to its fullest measure by_______an aristocrat who dominated Athens from 461 to 429 B.C.

Pericles

25

In what kind of democracy do the citizens elect a few men who represent them in the government?

Representative democracy

26

What kind of democracy did Athens have where the citizens made the big decisions of government directly themselves,not indirectly through representatives?

Direct democracy

27

The age of Pericles is often referred to as:

The "Golden Age of Greece"

28

What is ostracism?

Ostracism is where a quorum of citizens could vote to banish for 10 years any person believed to be dangerous to the state.

29

Because it expected more trouble from the Persians,Athens in 478-477 B.C. Formed the_____________.

Delian League

30

War between Sparta and Athens began in______ and lasted until________,with a brief period of peace in between.

431 B.C.-404 B.C.

31

The war between the Greeks and the Athens from 431 B.C.-404 B.C is known as the:

Pelopnnesian War

32

What story recounts the adventures of a brave Greek warrior,__________,on his 10-year journey home after the defeat of Troy.

Odysseus

33

What civilization developed the first important European civilization after the flood?

Minoans

34

Sir Arthur Evans,a British archeologist, uncovered the legendary King______ at_______.

King Minos at Knossos

35

Who was the chief and father of the gods,invented by Homer,who was associated with thunder and lightning?

Zeus

36

Who were the helots?

Spartan slaves

37

Homer's ________ differed from the gods only in being mortal and less powerful.

Heroes

38

In the Iliad,Homer made such heroes as _______,the invincible Greek warrior,come alive.

Achilles

39

Greek tribes and villages joined to form the:

Polis,or city

40

The typical polis of Greece surrounded a hilltop called the:

Acropolis

41

In the shadow of the acropolis stood the _________,a busy concourse of commerce,conversation,and debate.

Agora

42

Most Greek cities had a _______,a place of physical training and games of skill.

Gymnasium

43

Many Greek cities had an ________,an outdoor theatre.

Amphitheater

44

What did the Greeks call people who did not speak Greek and regarded them as inferior?

Barbarians

45

What were the games at which athletes from various city-states met to compete and was held every fourth year in honor of Zeus?

Olympic games

46

When did the Olympic games begin?

776 B.C.

47

What was the period between the Olympics called?

Olympiad

48

On the northern fringes of ancient Greece loomed the kingdom of:

Macedonia

49

In 539 B.C. who became king of Macedonia and was determined to become master of all Greece?

Philip II

50

What famous Athenian orator and statesman urged his fellow Greeks to unite against the Macedonian threat?

Demosthenes

51

When Philip conquered almost all Greece,he did not treat the Greeks as a conquered foe. What league did Philip organize of Greek city-states?

Hellenic League

52

Who assumed the Macedonian thrones age 20 after his father died?

Alexander the Great

53

In what year did King Alexander cross the Hellespont to begin his conquest of the mighty Persian Empire?

334 B.C.

54

What were the names of 16 Greek cities that a king of Macedonia owned?

Alexandria

55

Whose spreading of Greek culture became his most lasting contribution to world history and helped prepare the world for the coming of Jesus Christ?

Alexander the Great

56

After the decisive battle of _____,Alexander's empire was divided among four generals,who declared themselves kings.

Ipsus

57

What three ruling dynasties came out of Alexander's empire?

The Ptolemies-in Egypt
The Seleucids-in Syria
The Antigonids-in Macedonia and Greece

58

Ancient Greece flourished from the______ to ______,when the Macedonians conquered Greece,often referred to as the Hellenic age.

700s B.C.- 338B.C.

59

Ancient Greece flourished from the 700s B.C. to 338 B.C., this is often referred to as:

The Hellenic Age

60

The Greek philosopher who said,"Man is the measure of all things."

Protagoras

61

What was a well-educated slave that was charged with a school boy's manners and morals called?

Pedagogue

62

Greatest among the Athenian temples is the________, dedicated to Athena, the goddess of Athena.

Parthenon

63

Remembered as the Greek "Father of History", who described the Persian invasions?

Herodotus

64

The first great Greek poet who lived in the early portion of the Hellenic Age and wrote poetry was:

Homer

65

A legendary Greek writer who was a freed slave living in the sixth century B.C., and also introduced the the fable was:

Aesop

66

What is a brief story used to teach a moral and usually it's characters are animals?

Fable

67

Two of the greatest tragedy dramas of classical Greece were:

Oedipus Rex
Antigone

68

The two greatest drama tragedies of classical Greece were written by:

Sophocles

69

Who was the famous comic dramatist who used his plays to satirize political and cultural life in Athens?

Aristophanes

70

The Greeks made important contributions to science,once called:

Natural philosophy

71

Which Greek naturalist discovered important mathematical concepts still used in geometry?

Pythagoras

72

Which Greek naturalist developed a theory that all matter is composed of individual atoms?

Democritus

73

Who was the "Father of Medicine" who conducted experiments and concluded that disease results from rationally explainable causes?

Hippocrates

74

Hippocrates was known for the_______,a high code of ethics still taken by many medical school graduates today.

Hippocratic Oath

75

The Greeks were probably best known for their philosophers called:

Sophists

76

All the Greeks' philosophers were_________,those that believe that there are no absolute truths.

Relativists

77

Who was dissatisfied with the sophists and began searching for absolutes?

Socrates

78

What are ultimate foundational truths?

Absolutes

79

Who was one of Socrates's students,and wrote 30 or more works of philosophy?

Plato

80

In Plato's most famous work_________,he attempted to show how man could have order in society and in his soul.

The Republic

81

Who attempted to find an explanation for the obvious order,design,and purpose in the universe?

Plato

82

Who became student of Plato at 18 years,mastered every field of learning known to the Greeks, and concluded that the order of the universe must have come from God?

Aristotle

83

Which three men ultimately erred and placed man at the center of all things?

Socrates
Plato
Aristotle

84

The period of nearly 300 years from Alexander the Great in 323 B.C. To the Roman conquest of Egypt,the last remnant of Alexander's empire,in 30 B.C is known as the:

Hellenistic Age

85

Who founded the school of philosophy known as Stoicism?

Zeno

86

Zeno founded the school of philosophy known as:

Stoicism

87

Who taught that the highest good of man was to live a life of calm pleasure regulated by morality,temperance,serenity,and personal development?

Epicurus

88

Who were the followers of Epicurus who came to emphasize indulgence of one's bodily appetites and the physical pleasures of life?

Epicureans

89

Which third century B.C. astronomer proposed that the earth revolves around the sun,a theory not to be espoused by other scientists until centuries later?

Aristarchus of Samos

90

Who systematized the theorems of plane geometry?

Euclid

91

Who was the greatest astronomical observer of antiquity who formulated the basic principles of trigonometry?

Hipparchus

92

Who made important contributions to mathematics,engineering,and physics?

Archimedes

93

Who calculated the circumference of the earth with outstanding accuracy?

Eratosthenes of Cyrene

94

Who was the Greek geographer and historian who lived at the end of the Hellenistic Age,and left behind him a 17-volume "Geography" in which he described all parts of the known world at the beginning of the Christian Era?

Strabo

95

From the eastern form of Greek alphabet developed the__________, used to write such modern Slavic languages as Russian,Bulgarian,and Serbian.

Cyrillic alphabet

96

From the western form came what writing system from the western world?

Latin, or Roman, alphabet

97

The standard Greek literary language underwent some modification and grammatical simplification and became the_______tongue of the eastern Mediterranean.

Koine

98

What Persian king crushed the revolt of the Ionians in 499 B.C. and demanded that the mainland Greeks submit to him?

Darius I

99

Determined not to become part of the Persian empire, what three cities refused king Darius's demands?

Athens
Eretria
Sparta

100

What war began when King Darius sent a fleet of 600 ships with 2500 men to Greece?

Greco-Persian wars

101

When did the Greco-Persian wars begin?

490 B.C.

102

After defeating Eretria, the Persians landed at:

Marathon

103

Ten years after the battle of Marathon, which Persian king determined to conquer Greece?

Xerxes I,Darius's son

104

The Persian hordes met the Greeks in 480 B.C. at_________, a narrow mountain pass in central Greece near the Aegean Sea.

Thermopylae

105

After hearing of a treachery,the Spartan leader_______ ordered most of his troops to withdraw.

Leonidas

106

When the Persians arrived in Athens, they found that the citizens had been evacuated to the island of:

Salamis

107

What brilliant Athenian tricked Xerxes into fighting a naval battle in the narrow strait between the mainland and the island of Salamis?

Themistocles

108

What was the first major naval battle in history?

Battle of Salamis

109

After the battle of Salamis, the Persian emperor retreated with most of his army;the rest remained in Greece until defeated at the battle of _______.

Plataea

110

When was the battle of Plataea?

479 B.C.

111

What was considered a turning point in world history?

Xerxes' defeat in Greece