Flashcards in Chapter 18-England And America: Quest for Freedom Deck (95)
What group of Separatists fled to Holland in 1609 to escape Christian persecution, and later sailed to America in 1620?
In what year had scholars completed the King James Version of the Bible?
In 1611, scholars had completed the ___________________ of the Bible, the best-loved and most widely used translation of God's Word ever produced.
King James or Authorized Version
Several attempts, by England, to colonize what two territories claimed by England in North America had failed during the late 1500s?
In what year did English colonists establish Jamestown, Virginia?
In 1607, English colonists established _______________, Virginia- the first permanent English settlement in the New World.
In what year did English Separatists flee from persecution, establishing the New England colony of Plymouth; these colonies would transmit the English traditions of political liberty to American soil.
In 1620, English Separatists fleeing from persecution established the New England colony of ________________; these colonies would transmit the English traditions of political liberty to American soil.
Who was the son of James I, became king following his father's death, had the same disdain for Parliament and a stubborn belief in the divine right of kings, and forced citizens to give him "loans," imprisoning those who refused to pay.
In 1628, Parliament, the legal representative of the people of England, drew up the __________________, to which Charles I grudgingly assented. It stated nothing new; it merely reaffirmed the liberties and rights which Englishmen had won in the past.
Petition of Right
When Charles I defied the trends if English traditions and customs, he openly proclaimed that he would rule England without Parliament or the people's consent; beginning the ___________________ of Charles I.
"Eleven Years' Tyranny"
To tighten his grip on the Church of England, Charles I appointed _________________, as archbishop of Canterbury in 1633, who was determined to make the Anglican Church more like the Roman church and strengthen the power of the king as its head?
When William Laud became archbishop of Canterbury, many Puritans left England to escape persecution and take refuge in America, where they established the colony of ___________________ in 1630.
In what year did the Puritans establish the colony of Massachusetts in America?
In 1638, the Scottish people established the __________________, pledging to resist any attempt to change their religious institutions without their consent.
What was the Parliament that prevented the king (Charles I) from dissolving the assembly as he had done before, and sat in session for 13 years?
In November 1641, the Puritans in Parliament passed the __________________, a document stating additional grievances against the king (at the time, Charles I), including statements regarding Puritan religious reform and further limitation of the king's power.
Who was the son of Mary Queen of Scots, who became king, had very definite ideas about religion, and wanted the "divine right of kings" to rule with unlimited power, and thought he was above the law, and hated Parliament?
During the English Civil War, what were those who supported Parliament called, and were called this because of the style of hair that they had?
During the English Civil War, who were those who supported the king, and were called this because of the style of hair that they had?
What began officially on August 22, 1642, with the king fighting against Parliament, and began when the king raised his banner I the town of Nottingham?
English Civil War
In what year did the English Civil War begin?
Who was the Puritan leader of the Roundheads, had a reputation as a military genius, and his army was nicknamed the "Ironsides" because his army was hardened by military discipline and stiffened by religious zeal?
What battle turned the tide in favor of the Roundheads in the English civil war on July 2, 1644, where Cromwell personally led a charge that routed a Cavalier army?
Battle of Marston Moor
What was the climax of the English civil war on June 14, 1645, when the Roundheads decisively defeated the Cavaliers, and within a year, the last of the king's forces had surrendered, and the king fled to Scotland?
Battle of Naseby
What was the new government system that Cromwell set up, and on January 30, 1649, declared King Charles I guilty of treason and had him beheaded?
What was England's new government that was proclaimed a republic under the leaders of Oliver Cromwell?
In 1653, Cromwell finally dissolved Parliament and set up a new government called the _______________, and set himself up as "Lord Protector"?
Who succeeded his father as Lord Protector in 1658, but quickly fell from power?
Who was the Puritan scholar, and second greatest writer of all time, next to Shakespeare, and in 1665 produced England's greatest epic?
What was England's greatest epic in 1665 by John Milton?
Who was the Puritan preacher who wrote England's greatest allegory in 1678, and wrote it while he was in prison for preaching without a government license?
What was England's greatest allegory written by John Bunyan in 1678?
What was the non-Puritan group of poets that wrote about the mind, the soul, and eternity with much passion, logic, and imagery in order to express spiritual truths?
What was the non-Puritan group of poets that wrote lyrical poems about love and the pleasures of this world?
In 1670, Charles II secretly signed the ______________ with King Louis XIV of France without Parliament's knowledge, where Charles agreed to obtain toleration for English Catholics and to join the Roman church himself, if the French king would give him money to carry on his foreign policy.
Treaty of Dover
As Charles II became increasingly pro-Catholic, a group known as the ___________ arose in Parliament to oppose him.
When Charles II died in 1685, his brother _______________, a Catholic, became the new king of England and head of the Church of England, and tried unsuccessfully to reimpose Romanism on England.
When James II was removed from his throne in France, William the Orange and his wife Mary became __________________, king and queen of England.
William III and Mary II
In 1689, William III and Mary II supported the __________________, permanently establishing traditional political liberties.
English Bill of Rights
In 1689, William III and Mary II adopted the ________________, taking an important step toward true religious freedom in England.
The __________________ of 1688 was a bloodless transition of government in England, and secured once and fir all the traditional rights and liberties of the English.
In what year was the "Glorious Revolution" called, and secured once and for all the traditional rights and liberties of the English people?
When William III died in 1702, the only heir to the English throne was Mary's sister _______________, who became the last Stuart monarch of England, and the union into the United Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707, happened during her reign.
What year did the official union of England and Scotland's governments into the United Kingdom of Great Britain happen?
In 1707, the official Union of England and Scotland's governments into the:
United Kingdom of Great Britain
Who was a German Lutheran pastor who was concerned about the spiritual coldness and lack of moral consciousness in Germany, and started the Pietist movement?
Those who attended the groups such as Spener's, which became known as assemblies of piety, were called:
Who was one of the men profoundly affected by the Pietist movement, who was a young professor at the German University of Leipzig, and is remembered today fir his leadership in education?
What was one group that broke with the state church, that was also known as German Baptists, and in the 1700s, many of them emigrated to America, where they settled in Pennsylvania?
What was a group that was revived by Pietism, and were actually forerunners of the Protestant Reformation?
Who was an important Moravian leader, who was a young German nobleman who was trained at the Pietist University of Halle in Germany, and his estate soon became the site for the Moravian settlement of Herrnhut, the headquarters for Moravian missionary activities?
Count Nicholas Von Zinzendorf
By 1730, the revival had spread to America, where it was called the __________________.
The Great Awakening began in earnest around 1730 under the preaching of ____________, and is best remembered for his most famous sermon.
What was title Jonathan Edward's most famous sermon?
"Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God"
Who was the best-known Great Awakening evangelist and English preacher, whose booming voice could reach up to 30,000 people, and preached over 18,000 times to a total of over 10 million people within 34 years?
Revival came to England around 1740 through the ministry of the great English revivalist:
The late 17th and early 18th centuries in England were known as the ______________ because several English philosophers and writers adopted forms of rationalism, deism, and other humanistic philosophies.
Age of Reason
Who was one of the most influential philosophers of the Age of Reason, and often supplanted the authority of the Bible with humanistic rationalism and empiricism?
What is the belief that experience is the only source of knowledge?
What is the idea that truth is impossible, and that knowledge is uncertain?
Who was a philosopher of the age of reason, who promoted the philosophy of skepticism?
Who was John Wesley's brother, who met with him and and several other young men to study the Bible and the classics and to encourage each other in their spiritual development?
What did the other students call the meetings of John and Charles Wesley, George Whitefield , and several other young men for encouragement in their spiritual development, because of their pious meetings and well-ordered methods of conduct?
What was the church founded by John Wesley, and became one of the largest denominations in both England and America during the 19th century?
Who was the great Christian statesman of English history, who was affected by the Wesleyan Revival, and led the movement in England to abolish slavery?
Who was the man who gave up his wicked slave-trading life at sea, was greatly influenced by the preaching of John Wesley and George Whitefield, began preaching, wrote 350 hymns, and contributed 280?
Who was the man who started the first Sunday school, is remembered as the "Father of the Sunday School Movement"?
Historians see the Sunday school movement as the beginning of ________________ (education for all children) in Great Britain.
Who was the personal friend of John Wesley, who wrote extensively about the awful conditions of the prisons, and led to the reform of the inhumane practices of England's prison system?
What year marks the official beginning of modern missions?
Who was the English shoemaker who was saved during the Wesleyan Revival, and is known as the "Father of Modern Missions"?
Who was the man who translated the Bible into the Burmese language, and is known as the "Father of American Missions"?
Who was Irishman who is one of the most noteworthy members of the British Parliament during the 18th century, and is remembered as the "Father of Modern Conservatism"?
Who was the jurist who became the leading authority on English law, and wrote "Commentaries on the Laws of England"?
Sir William Blackstone
Who was the greatest literary figure of the 18th century, who went against the literary tide of his day by standing for the Bible and staunchly supporting the Scriptures against the claims of Deism?
Who was the greatest British navigator and explorer of his age, led three expeditions to the Pacific Ocean, charted the islands of New Zealand and New Guinea, and the continent of Australia, was the first to cross the Antarctic Circle, and discovered the now called Hawaiian Islands?
Captain James Cook
Who became king of England when Queen Anne died in 1714, and began the Hanoverian line of English kings, could not speak English, and during his reign the Jacobite rebellion of 1715 occurred, and the illegal business practices of the South Sea Company?
Who was King George's chief minister, who held the real governmental power because King George I could not speak English, and was the first true prime minister of Britain?
Sir Robert Walpole
Who was the second Hanoverian king, who was not very involved in the English language, depended heavily on Sir Robert Walpole, and the Industrial Revolution began during his reign, and also England had colonized Georgia, the last of the English colonies in North America, for a total of 13, and a second Jacobite rebellion also occurred?
In 1754, a fourth war started in America between the two rivals and later spread to Europe, called the ___________________, which broke out as the British fought the French and their Indian allies for control of eastern North America.
French and Indian War (1754-1763)
What were the years of the French and Indian War?
In 1757, the tide began to turn for the British for good when British statesman ___________________ became prime minister of England, who was determined to not only defeat the French but also to drive them out of North America.
William Pitt the Elder
It was during the reigns of George II and his successor, _______________ that England came to dominate much of North America.
Britain's administration of her New World possessions reflected the economic policy of ________________, which held that the real measure of a nation's wealth was the amount of gold or silver it possessed, and colonies existed for the good of the mother country--to help her gain wealth.
What was the American War for independence sometimes called?
By 1774, representatives from the colonies had convened in Philadelphia for the First _________________ in order to maintain freedom in America and reconcile their differences with Great Britain if possible.
When British troops, warships, and foreign mercenaries were sent to suppress the American colonies, the colonists had no choice but to defend their traditional liberties, beginning the:
American War for Independence (1775-1783)
What were the years of the American War for Independence?
What was the exact date that the Second Continental Congress unanimously adopted the Declaration of Independence?
July 4, 1776
On July 4, 1776, the Second Continental Congress unanimously adopted the ______________________, the most important human statement of political principles in the history of the world.
Declaration of Independence
What was America's first attempt to build a national government that proved to be unworkable and inadequate?
Articles of Confederation
What document did the delegates produce that has become a masterpiece in history, and was ratified by 1789?
United States Constitution
By what year was the United States Constitution ratified?