Flashcards in Chapter 14-The Prodestant Reformation Deck (58):
One of the foremost scholars of the Northern Renaissance was the German ___________, who mastered the Hebrew language and revolutionized the study of the Old Testament in its original language.
Who was one of the important German scholars of the Northern Renaissance who was a master of Greek, Latin, classical literature, and the Word of God?
Among the most prominent of English scholars was _____________, a graduate of Oxford University who traveled through Europe to other universities and schools to study the humanities.
Who was a Englishman who was the king's chancellor, was an important political figure and scholar in England and was strongly influenced by Colet's teaching as he pursued his own studies in the humanities?
Who was an important figure influenced by John Colet and produced the first printed English translation of the New Testament from the original Greek?
Who was one of the leading French Renaissance scholars around the late 1400s?
What was the cardinal doctrine of the Protestant Reformation?
Justification by faith alone
William Tyndale completed his first edition of the New Testament in English from Greek in _________while staying in Germany, and had 3,000 copies printed and smuggled into England.
The most famous figure of the Northern Renaissance was ____________, a scholar from the Netherlands who expressed the need for reform in the church in his works "Colloquies," "Adagia," "Handbook of a Christian Soldier," and "In Praise of Folly."
When did Erasmus publish the first printed edition of the New Testament in the original Greek?
By 1500, the revival of learning had spread north from Italy into other parts of Europe, and the movement known as the ______________ had begun in such countries as Germany, France, the Netherlands, and England.
Who was the man who began the Protestant Reformation and was born in Eisleben, Germany into a middle-class family?
Luther graduated from the University of ___________ in 1505 with his bachelor's and master's degrees in liberal arts.
In 1507, Luther was ordained as a priest, and a year later, Luther went to teach at the new University of:
Luther's studies climaxed when he finally understood Romans 1:16-17 which mainly states:
The just shall live by faith
What German aristocrat, in 1507, appointed a Dominican friar to travel through Germany and sell indulgences?
Albert of Brandenburg
In 1517, Albert of Brandenburg appointed a Dominican friar named _____________ to travel through Germany and sell indulgences.
What is a papal certificate that excused a person from doing penance and shortened the required stay in purgatory before going to Heaven?
Half of the money that was made through the selling of the indulgences would go to Albert, who had recently purchased the leading church office in Germany; the other half to Pope __________ for the construction of a cathedral in Rome in honor of St. Peter.
When did Luther serve notice that he was ready to debate indulgences and nailed the Ninety-five Theses to the church door?
October 31, 1517
On October 31, 1517, Luther went to the church in Wittenberg and nailed a list of statements called the __________ to the church door.
The movement Luther began in 1517 is called the _________________ because Luther and others protested the corrupt practices of the Roman church and at first sought to reform the church, restoring it to the authority of the Scriptures, rather than to withdraw from it.
The followers of the Protestant Reformation are called:
Luther appealed to ____________, the elector of Luther's part of Germany, who decided that Luther should receive a hearing on German soil in connection with a meeting of the diet.
Frederick the Wise
What is an assembly of princes and high church officials in the Holy Roman Empire?
What group was at odds with the papacy because popes had been taking much money from Germany to spend on crusades and other projects?
Diet of Augsburg
In July 1519, Luther debated ___________, a renowned Romanist theologian, at the University of Leipzig.
In July 1519, Luther debated Johann Eck, a renowned Romanist theologian, at the University of:
In which one of Luther's tracts dies Luther attack the "walls" that the Roman church built?
To the Christian Nobility of the German Nation
In which one of Luther's tracts did he compare the papacy to ancient Babylon's seizure of the people of Israel?
The Babylonian Captivity of the Church
In which one of Luther's tracts did he address himself directly to the pope?
The Freedom of the Christian Man
In March 1521, Holy Roman Emperor __________, agreed that Luther should come to the diet that would meet in the city of Worms.
In March 1521, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, agreed that Luther should come to the diet that would meet in the city of:
On May 26, 1521, the furious emperor, Charles V, issued the ____________, declaring Luther a heretic and an outlaw.
Edict of Worms
From April 1521 to March 1522, Luther, disguised as "Knight George," hid in the:
After Luther left the Wartburg Castle in 1522, he worked diligently to promote ____________ (the education of all people rather than just a privileged few).
Luther wrote and composed many hymns, including what hymn that is still sung in many churches today?
"A Mighty Fortress Is Our God"
Luther urged monks and nuns to marry, rather than pointlessly remaining in seclusion, and, being a former Augustinian friar, set this example by marrying ____________, a former nun, in 1525, and becoming the father of six children.
Katharina von Bora
The followers of Martin Luther, ____________, took a courageous stand for the Bible and spiritual freedom against the distortions of the Romanist church.
Who, in 1542, compiled the first Protestant hymnbook?
Some of the most influential Protestant groups arose in ___________, the land of snowcapped mountains to the south of Germany.
In the early 1500s, Switzerland consisted of several major cities and thirteen provinces called:
The cantons of Switzerland were united in the ____________, but in fact they were independent of one another, almost like separate countries.
The emphasis on _____________ distinguishes the Modern Age from all previous eras.
It was into Switzerland's atmosphere of freedom and diversity that a priest named _______________ stepped forward in 1518 to attack the sale of indulgences.
In what Swiss city was Ulrich Zwingli appointed to the post of "people's priest," where he announced that he would begin his duties by preaching through the Gospel of Matthew?
Who, on July 10, 1509, was born in Noyon, France, and, after studying law and the liberal arts and mastering the ancient classical books, he became associated with a group of Renaissance French scholars, and by 1533, was committed to the Protestant faith?
Calvin took refuge from the policy against Protestants in the city of ___________, Switzerland, where he undertook a detailed study of the Bible, the writings of the early church fathers, and the works of Martin Luther.
The result of John Calvin's study of the Bible was his most famous work, ____________, which was probably the single most influential book of the Protestant Reformation apart from the Bible.
"The Institutes of the Christian Religion"
Calvin soon had the opportunity to put many of his ideas into practice in the city of _______, Switzerland.
The Reformation had been established earlier in Geneva, Switzerland, by ___________, another French Protestant.
Many Christians of other denominations as well have considered themselves ____________, because his major influence in the Protestant Reformation have many people looking back to John Calvin as the founder.
Beginning about 1525, there arose in Switzerland a group of Protestants led by ___________ who called themselves the Swiss Brethren.
The enemies of the Swiss Brethren dubbed them ____________ after similar groups who during the Middle Ages and even earlier had been called by that name.
What group trace their lineage directly back to Menno Simons, an Anabaptist preacher in Holland who, in April 1535, "turned to the Lord in penitence and faith and was fully changed."
Who was the man who founded the Mennonites, was an Anabaptist preacher in Holland who, in April 1535, "turned to the Lord in penitence and faith and was fully changed"?
What two groups are related to the Anabaptist movement?