Flashcards in Chapter 11-The Dark Ages Deck (111):
Who declared that every church must agree with the Church of Rome?
What was the name for the leaders of the church that means "servant"?
What were the church leaders called who were the elders and means "overseer" or "superintendent"?
What was the idea that Christ appointed apostles to succeed His ministers and these apostles had appointed bishops and these bishops appointed successors of their own etc.?
What describes that as long as the apostles lived, the churches had the benefit of having special leaders appointed directly by Christ himself and were authorized to speak and act in his name?
The bishops of Rome misused the text of Matthew 16:18-19 to support __________, which states that Christ founded His church upon Peter, and Christ made Peter the visible head of the Church, and that Peter transmitted this power to his successors.
The Petrine theory gave rise to the idea of the ____________: that the Roman church is supreme over all churches and the bishop of Rome is supreme over all bishops.
Roman Catholic Church
According to the Roman Catholic Church, the bishop of Rome was supreme over all bishops, thus the bishop of Rome would be called the:
When did the Western Roman emperor Valentinian III officially recognize Pope Leo I as supreme over the Roman church?
In 445, Western Roman emperor Valentinian III officially recognized _________, as supreme over the Roman church.
Pope Leo I
Who was the first medieval pope who helped to fill the power vacuum in Europe, especially in Rome and surrounding areas?
The Roman church's territories were divided and subdivided into ________, and _________; likewise, it's leaders were arranged in a hierarchy of authority and importance with the pope at the top.
The church began to teach that salvation depended on the _________, an "infallible conveyor of grace" in the hands of a properly ordained priest of the Roman church.
Who was a missionary to Ireland?
Those who disobeyed the rulers of the church could be __________, or cut off from the church, which meant nothing more than eternal damnation.
What was the term that described that the bread and wine of the Lord's Supper actually became the body and blood of Christ in the hands f the priest?
Some devout followers even purchased and worshipped _______, remains or artifacts.
Well before the end of the second century the ____________ had become prominent.
Church of Rome
The people of the Church of Rome sought to placate the Son's wrath against their sins by praying to His mother, Mary, long-departed apostles, and other _______, deceased Christians officially recognized by the church as holy because of martyrdom, miracles, or other merits.
What were the certificates that the pope gave people to excuse them from doing penance and shortened a required stay in purgatory?
What was a place of fire where the souls of penitent sinners remained after death to be purged of sin and rendered fit for heaven?
What was a Latin translation of the Bible completed by the church leader Jerome in 405, and was just about the only version available in the Middle Ages?
Who was the man who gave the English people the Bible in their own tongue by translating it from Latin to English and having copies written out by hand?
Who had translated a Bible for the people of the Alps 200 years before John Wycliffe?
Who were the two men who opposed the official church?
What was the group named for Peter of Bruis that protested against the established church?
The Petrobrusians were named for who?
Peter of Bruis
What was the group that protested against the distorted church and originated during the late 1100s in the European Alps and was founded by Peter Waldo?
The Waldensians was founded by what wealthy merchant in Lyons, France, and was disgusted with the corruption he saw in the Roman church?
What council forbade anyone except a clergyman to possess a copy of the Bible, except for the Psalms and lessons of Scripture contained in the breviary?
The Council of Toulouse
What was the service and worship book of the church?
What was the ideal for people who called themselves Christians of withdrawing from society to live in solitude?
What were men who practiced monasticism called?
What were women who practiced monasticism called?
The earliest monks lived alone in the wilderness as:
What did the monks vow that meant abstinence from marriage, believing that the more they withdrew from the world and the flesh, the more holy they would become?
Who was the monk that perched alone for 37 years on top of a pedestal 50 feet high?
The vast majority of medieval monks lived in _________, religious communities isolated from the rest of society?
What were the religious communities isolated from the rest of the world for nuns called?
Life in a monastery followed rigid rules called:
Most European monks followed the orders of _________, an Italian monk who founded a monastery at Monte Cassino in southern Italy.
Benedictine monks vowed life-long poverty, chastity, and obedience to the ______, the head of the monastery.
In the beginning of the 13th century, what new kind of monk appeared and lived like other monks except that they preached and did missionary work outside the monasteries?
What were the two most prominent orders of Friars that dedicated themselves to preaching and to combating what the church deemed as heresy?
Who issued the "two sword" doctrine?
What was the most dominant Germanic tribe that moved into Gaul as the Roman Empire collapsed?
Who was the first great Frankish military and political leader and inherited the position of tribal king from his father in 481?
Clovis was baptized into the Roman church on Christmas Day in ________ along with 3,000 of his warriors.
After Clovis's death, his descendants ruled and these rulers were known as the __________ line of kings, named after Merovee, Clovis's grandfather.
The real ruling power fell into the hands of the chief official of the royal household, the:
Mayor of the Palace
Who was the most famous Mayor of the Palace who came to power in 715?
In 711, the ___________ (Muslims from North Africa) invaded Spain.
Charles Martel defeated the invading Muslims at the Battle of Tours in the year of:
In 732, Charles Martel defeated the invading Muslims at what battle?
Battle of Tours
Charles Martel, beating back the Muslims in a series of battles that lasted nearly a decade, earning himself the name " Martel" which means:
Who's victories prevented western Europe from being swallowed up in a Muslim empire?
Who was the son of Charles Martel who became Mayor of the Palace and followed in his father's footsteps as a strong leader?
Pepin the Short
Pep in the Short's kingship commenced the __________ line of Frankish kings, named for either Pepin's father or Pepin's son, both of whom were named Charles.
When the Franks defeated the Lombards and gave their land in central Italy to the pope; what was this called?
"Donation of Pepin"
The "Donation of Pepin" became known as the __________, making the pope a temporal ruler with an important stake in European politics.
The alliance between the _________ rulers and the ________, initiated by the conversation of Clovis and consummated by Pepin the Short, was to influence the course of the European history not only during the Middle Ages but well into the modern age.
Frankish rulers and the papacy
Pepin the Short's son, Charles, had the accomplishments that win him the title ____________, French for Charles the Great.
Charlemagne's greatest conquests were against the pagan __________, a Germanic people who lived between the Rhine and Elbe rivers.
To protect his realm against invasions, Charlemagne set up a series of provinces, or:
Who's empire was the largest in the West since the Roman Empire of the A.D. 300s?
The greatest event of Charlemagne's reign took place ___________, when Pope Leo III placed a crown of gold upon Charlemagne's head, proclaiming him Charles Augustus, Emperor of the Romans.
Christmas Day, 800
On Christmas Day, 800, Pope Leo III placed a golden crown on the head of Charlemagne, proclaiming him:
Charles Augustus, Emperor of the Romans
From his capital in western Germany, Charlemagne sent out his __________ ("the king's envoys") to check on local officials inspect local conditions, and hear grievances against government officers.
What type of writing replaced the old cursive scripts which became the basis for modern handwriting styles as well as the roman typeface?
Who was the only surviving son of Charlemagne whose three sons fell into bitter rivalry over how the empire was to be divided among themselves during his weak rule?
Louis the Pious
When did Louis's three rival sons finally meet and make an agreement at Verdun?
What treaty divided the Roman Empire into three parts?
Treaty of Verdun
The Treaty of Verdun was divided into three parts between Louis the Pious's three sons which were:
Lothair the Elder-middle part
Charles the Bald-western part
Louis the German-eastern part
The Treaty of Verdun was important because:
It set the stage for the formation of the modern nations of France and Germany
The land the middle kingdom north of the Alps, _________, was divided between Charles and Louis after Lothair's death.
What was the group of nomadic people from Asia who penetrated deep into southeastern Europe who earned the name Scourge of Europe?
The Magyars finally settled down in the area known since as:
Who were the blond, blue-eyed German barbarians from Scandinavia who invaded places as far as Greenland, Iceland, and even North America?
Norsemen or Vikings
The Norsemen, or Vikings, who invaded many different nations dwelt in:
Among the most important Viking settlements was ____________, an area along the northern coast of France.
The lands of Germany crumbled into many small territories called _________, each ruled by a powerful nobel called a duke.
In 919, the dukes elected __________, the duke of Saxony, to act as king of Germany, beginning the Saxon line of kings.
Henry the Fowler
In 919, the dukes elected Henry the Fowler to act as king of Germany, beginning the _________ line of kings.
Who was the successor of Henry the Fowler and won many victories and became known as this for his many victories?
Otto the Great
In what year, at request of the pope, did Otto invade Italy and was crowned Emperor of the Romans?
In 962, at the request of the pope, Otto invaded Italy and was crowned _________ by the pope.
Emperor of the Romans
In 962, at request of the pope, Otto invaded Italy and was crowned Emperor of the Romans by the pope, giving birth to the:
Holy Roman Empire
What line of emperors succeeded the Saxons in 1024?
Under whose reign did the German monarchy reach the peak of its power?
During the years shortly after Henry IV, a few leading nobles claimed the right of choosing the king; these nobles became known as:
Who, in 1152, became the first of the Hohenstaufen line of emperors, and officially adopted the phrase "Holy Roman Empire"?
In 1152, Frederick Barbarossa became the first of what line of emperors?
Who was the son of Frederick Barbarossa who entangled himself even further in Italy?
After whose reign did the Holy Roman Empire decline rapidly?
The French philosopher Voltair ridiculed the Holy Roman Empire as:
"Neither Holy, nor Roman, nor an Empire"
What pope urged Hildebrand to expand greatly the power and independence of the papacy in 1059?
In 1059, Pope Nicholas II urged what ambitious monk who served as an advisor to the popes to expand greatly the power and independence of the papacy?
In 1059, Nicholas II urged Hildebrand to decree that henceforth popes would be chosen only by __________, who at the time were priests of the churches in Rome and other Italian cities.
Under which pope did the papacy attain its highest power and influence?
The monk, Hildebrand, became pope as:
Pope Gregory VII
Gregory's efforts to increase papal power brought him into an intense conflict with Holy Roman Emperor:
What term referred to the power of laymen such as emperors and kings to choose bishops and other church officials?
Henry IV went to see Pope Gregory in __________ to personally to beg him for forgiveness.
When King John displeased Innocent III, Innocent excommunicated John and placed his entire realm under an ___________: no infants were baptized, no masses said, no confessions heard, no dying persons received the last rites, and no dead were properly interred.
Innocent III and his successors instituted the __________, a special court with power to inquire about and judge matters of heresy.
Holy Office of the Inquisition
In France, what king clashed with the papacy by levying 50% taxes on the French clergy's annual income?
King Phillip the Fair
What pope, in the time of King Phillip the Fair, threatened to excommunicate any layman who exacted taxes and any clergyman who paid them without papal approval?
What was an official decree by the pope called?
In 1305, under Philip the Fair's influence, a French bishop became Pope Clement V moved the papal court from Rome to ________, France.
The act of Pope Clement V moving the papal court from Rome to Avignon, France was the beginning of the:
"Babylonian Captivity of the Papacy"