Flashcards in Chapter 23-The Rise of Communism Deck (70):
What is the atheistic idea that is the foundation of communism?
There are no absolutes
Communism is also known as __________________ after two of its most infamous theorists, Karl Marx and Vladimir Lenin.
Who formulated the basic ideas of Communism, who blamed ownership of private property as the source of the conflict, and adapted Hegel's dialectical reasoning into dialectical materialism, and violently opposed capitalism?
Marx viewed history as a record of _____________ between the wealthy and the poor, and he blamed ownership of private property as the source of conflict.
What was Karl Marx's adaptation of Hegel's dialectic reasoning that states that nothing but the material world exists and that material conditions alone (the environment and economics) determine how a person thinks, acts, feels, and believes?
What is the name for the middle class?
What is the name for the working class?
Marx said that the state will wither away, and there will come into being a stateless, classless, perfect condition beyond socialism called:
Marx called religion the __________________ because he believed that religion was like a "drug" that made people content with less in this life because they expect happiness only in the next.
"Opiate of the people"
Who was the man who shared Marx's belief that mankind is the pinnacle of biological and social evolution and constitutes the only "deity," who wrote "The Communist Manifesto" with Karl Marx?
The secular humanism embraced by Marx and Engels became the foundation of:
When revolution broke out in Germany in ____________, Marx and Engels took advantage of the turmoil to issue "The Communist Manifesto."
When revolution broke out in Germany in 1848, Marx and Engels took advantage of the turmoil to issue ____________________, a pamphlet which laid out a program fir Communist revolution.
The Communist Manifesto
What is a form of socialism which advocates the violent overthrow of existing governments with the goal of changing society and ultimately perfecting mankind, and always results in a totalitarian dictatorship that dominates the person, property, and even thought of its citizens by means of force and terror?
In 1864, Marx helped organize the International Workingmen's Association, or ____________________, with representatives from all over Europe.
Out of Marx's research of economics, history, and philosophy came what he considered to be the greatest intellectual triumph--________________, which was first published in 1867, which offered a theoretical foundation for Communist ideology.
Russia's history began when a tribe of eastern Slavs settled in eastern Europe where ______________, the capital of Ukraine, is located today.
During the nineteenth century, Kiev, the capital of Ukraine, was invaded by a Viking tribe called the ____________, and the region became known as Russia.
Around the time when invading Mongol hordes controlled Russia, the town of _____________ rose to prominence.
Who was the Prince of Moscow, who by 1480, had driven the Mongols from power and had expanded Russia's borders through conquest, and became the first true national leader of a united Russia?
Ivan IV took the title ________, which means caesar.
Who was the grandson of Ivan the Great (Ivan III), who was called this because of his cruelty, fought several brutal wars, and passed laws tying the peasant farmers to the land?
Ivan the Terrible
In 1613, _________________ became czar, beginning the Romanov dynasty, which lasted over 300 years.
Under the Romanov rule, Russian territorial expansion continued eastward to the Pacific coast of:
Who was the greatest and most capable of the Romanov czars, fought a war with Sweden and conquered lands and peoples along the Baltic Sea in order to build the port city of St. Petersburg?
Peter the Great
Czar Peter the Great fought a war with Sweden and conquered lands and peoples along the Baltic Sea in order to build the port city of ______________ to serve as both his new capital and as his "window to the west."
Who was the Russian empress who embraced western ideas, exhibiting her desire to rule by principles of reason and benevolence, actively promoted the arts and sciences among her people, and later poured her energy into expanding Russia's borders to the Black Sea?
Catherine the Great
In the early 19th century, _____________ successfully led Russia in a long and vicious struggle with Napoleon, promoted Russian colonization in North America, specifically in the region between Alaska and the Oregon Territory, and by the time of his death, Russia had become the largest country in the world.
Alexander I promoted Russian colonization in North America, specifically in the region between what two places?
Alaska and the Oregon Territory
Who was Alexander I's successor who faced trouble from revolutionaries during the Decembrist Revolt of 1825, and it so frightened him that oversaw the growth of a huge czarist bureaucracy and set up a secret police to control many aspects of Russian life?
Nicholas I faced trouble from revolutionaries during the ________________ of 1825.
When Russia invaded Turkish territory in 1853, England, France, and Sardinia rushed to Turkey's aid, resulting in the _______________, which was a failure for Russia.
After Nicholas I died, his son ______________ succeeded him. He became known as the "Czar Liberator" because in 1861 he freed serfs. So the serfs no longer had to stay, but they did because they had nowhere else to go.
Alexander II became known as the ______________ because in 1861 he freed serfs; however the serfs' plight changed little, for although they no longer had to stay on the land, they had no other place to go.
Who was Alexander II's son and successor, who determined to crush all opposition to the throne, instituted strict censorship of the press and in Russian schools, made the Jews in Russia the "scapegoats" for his father's assassination, forcing them to live in certain provinces, and subjecting them to pogroms?
What were periodic, organized massacres that Czar Alexander III subjected the Jews in Russia to fur his father's assassination?
Who was the successor of Czar Alexander III who proved to be a weak ruler who showed little strength of character in the face of serious political problems and lost much prestige after Russia's humiliating defeat by Japan in the Russo-Japanese War?
Czar Nicholas II lost much prestige after Russia's unexpected and humiliating defeat by Japan in the _________________, a brief conflict over control of Manchuria.
During Czar Nicholas II's reign in Russia, at the palace, troops fired on the crowd, killing several hundred people, creating the incident remembered as ________________, which spurred several mutinies in the military and a general workers' strike that paralyzed the nation.
Facing the threat of outright revolution, Czar Nicholas II granted a constitution which guaranteed certain freedoms and established the _____________, an elected legislative body with limited powers.
To restore law and order, the Duma set up a ____________________ resembling a Western representative democracy, which Czar Nicholas II immediately complied to.
By July, 1917, the Provisional Government had come under the leadership of _________________, the leader of Russia's Labor Party.
Who was the most dangerous Communist revolutionary in Russia who was a Marxist, believed that Marxism was a religion, saw himself as the "prophet" of this new religion, and was convinced that the Communist revolution could succeed in Russia?
What group of the split Russian Communist ranks wanted a broad party membership that included socialist and liberal democrats and advocated more peaceful methods for social change, and means "minority"?
What were the two groups that came out of the splitting of the Russian Communist party ranks?
What group of the split Russian Communist ranks followed Lenin's theory of a party restricted to professional revolutionaries?
Who was Lenin's chief henchman, who was a Russian Jew, and as a young man, repudiated his Jewish faith and became a professional revolutionary?
Lenin and his followers quickly went to work, spreading anti-war propaganda and creating a Bolshevik military force known as the ______________ to stir up trouble.
In what year did the Bolshevik Revolution successfully topple the Provisional Government?
On November 6-7, 1917, the ______________ successfully toppled the Provisional Government, making Lenin the master of Russia and the first Communist state in history.
Karl Marx said the only way to simplify and localize the bloody agony of the old society and the bloody birth-pangs of the new society was:
The revolutionary terror
Lenin created a secret police organization called the _____________ to bring the Russian people under the heel of Communism by arrest, imprisonment, torture, or death.
What were those who opposed the Communists during the Russian Civil War called?
What were those who favored the Communists called?
Under Vladimir Lenin's direction, Leon Trotsky formed the ___________ during the summer of 1918 to combat the White Russians.
What was Communist Party's ruling elite, was under the leadership of Vladimir Lenin, crushed freedom of all forms, and the "Enemies of the state" were imprisoned or executed?
In 1919, Vladimir Lenin organized the ________________, a terrorist organization dedicated to inciting Communist revolution and establishing a worldwide Communist state.
From 1918 to 1920, Vladimir Lenin pursued economic policy called _______________ in an attempt to centralize all of Russia's economic assets under the control of the Communist Party. And to achieve this, the government seized control of practically everything, and forced all workers to join Communist-controlled trade unions, and confiscated all church property.
Facing the possibility of mass starvation and economic ruin, Vladimir Lenin had no choice but to abandon "War Communism" and adopt a form of state capitalism called ________________. Which Lenin explained as a "temporary retreat" from Communism to allow the Russian economy to recover.
New Economic Policy (NEP)
In December of what year did Vladimir Lenin create the "Union of Soviet Socialist Republics"?
In December 1922, Vladimir Lenin created the __________________ to bring all of the non-Russian nationalities under one centralized Communist regime.
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R. or Soviet Union)
Who gained control over Russia when Lenin died in 1924, eliminated all opposition by force and terror, and proved to be one of the mist brutal rulers of all times?
In 1928, Stalin replaced the NEP with the first ____________________. His goal was to transform the Soviet Union from a backward agrarian country into an industrial and military superpower. The entire Russian economy would've run by an elite group of Communist leaders.
While building up state-controlled industries, Stalin ordered that Russian agriculture be _________________: forcing small, private farms to band together into large collective farms supervised by appointed managers.
During 1932-1933 the famine struck hardest in the region of ________________, ironically one of the most productive agricultural regions in the world.
The famine was not a result of Communist mismanagement, but was a deliberate attempt by Stalin at ________________, which is the extermination of a political, cultural, or ethnic group.
How many men, women, and children died in Stalin's forced collectivization of Russian agriculture?
More than how many men had perished under Lenin's "War Communism"?
In the mid 1930s, he instituted a reign of terror known as the ________________, rooting out anyone who posed even the slightest threat to his authority.