Flashcards in Chapter 25-World War II Deck (115)
What party, also known as "the Blackshirts," did Mussolini organize following World War I?
What is a form of socialism that is similar to communism and exercises totalitarian control of political, economic, cultural, religious, and social activities, and it follows Darwinian ideas and it's attempts to change society and bringing a new social order?
Who was the Socialist leader of the National Socialist German Workers' Party, also known as "Nazis," and wrote Mein Kampf?
Hitler became the leader of what party also known as "Nazis"?
National Socialist German Worker's Party
Hitler became the leader of the National Socialist German Worker's Party, also known as:
What is a form of socialism, but it relies more heavily on terrorist aggression, racism, and antidemocratic nationalism?
What was the autobiography written by Hitler that was an exposition of the Nazi ideology, and also served as a blueprint for his future plans?
Because many Germans believes in evolution and other liberal philosophies, they excepted Hitler's ideas and soon elected Nazi candidates to the _____________, Germany's chief legislative body.
When Hitler wiped away the last remnants of the Weimer republic and assumed total power, he called himself _________________, which means the leader.
When Hitler wiped away the last remnants of the Weimer republic and assumed total power he called himself "Der Führer," (the leader) and his new government the:
Who was the leader of Japan who used Japan's ancient and religious customs and long traditions of the samurai to their advantage, convincing the Japanese people that they were under divine protection could not be defeated, and was militaristic?
Who was the emperor during the time of General Hideki Tojo, who was the official head of the Japanese government, but had no real authority?
Where in China did Japan first invade, beginning the wave of aggression which plunged the world into a second world war in 1931?
What Chinese government under Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, was engaged in an exhausting civil war against the Chinese Communist since 1927, and was forced to move its wartime capital to Chungking, far up the Yangtze River?
Who was the leader of the Nationalist Chinese government who were engaged in an exhausting civil war against the Chinese Communist since 1927?
The Nationalist Chinese government under Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek were engaged since 1927 in an exhausting civil war against the:
The Nationalist Chinese government under Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek were engaged since 1927 in an exhausting civil war against the Chinese Communists under who?
The Chinese were greatly heartened by the arrival of former American General ________________, and the "Flying Tigers" to help them fight the Japanese off.
The Chinese were greatly heartened by the arrival of former American General Claire Chennault, and the ________________, a group of three volunteer squadrons of American airmen who flew missions against the Japanese and fought them successfully in the air against incredible odds.
Who was the general who fought in the Spanish Civil War to keep Spain from falling into the hands of the Communist forces who fought for the other side?
General Francisco Franco
In 1936 Japan signed the Tripartite Treaty with Germany and Italy, forming the:
In 1936 Japan signed the Tripartite Treaty with Germany and Italy, forming the Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis, soon becoming known as the:
Once Hitler had Schuschnigg removed from Vienna, Hitler's troops marched triumphantly into Vienna, seizing Austria without a shot and establishing the _____________, the force union of Germany with Austria.
Who was the British Prime Minister who was the leading voice in Europe for peace and conciliation, who flew with Edouard Daladier to Munich, Germany, I the fall of 1938 to confer with Hitler and Mussolini?
Who was the French Premier who flew with Neville Chamberlain to Munich, Germany, in the fall of 1938 to confer with Hitler and Mussolini?
Chamberlain and Daladier agreed to Hitler's demands and signed the _____________, which dismembered Czechoslovakia by giving the rich Sudetenland to Germany.
Many of the Western countries had adopted the weak policy of _______________, which is either giving in to the demands of aggressor nations or taking no action when the aggressors attacked weaker countries.
Who was the socialist leader of the Italians, who organized the Fascist party (also called "the Blackshirts"), his belief being Fascism, following World War I?
Encouraged by Hitler's successes, Mussolini seized tiny _______________ in the Balkans in April 1939.
What German fortifications opposed the French Maginot Line?
Germany's Siegfried Line opposed France's:
Because Hitler also wished to avoid Russian opposition to his planned conquest of Poland, he signed a nonaggression pact called the ________________ with Joseph Stalin in August 1939.
After staging an "incident" along the German-Polish border, the Nazi war machine moved into Poland on:
September 1, 1939
What term referred to German dive bombers?
What term referred to German tanks?
German's rapid conquest of Poland was the world's first experience of _____________, or "lightning war," as fast, heavy assault by motorized forces (especially tanks) and air power.
Because there were no major battles in Western Europe during the first seven months of the war, the Germans referred to it as a _______________, or "sitting down war."
Who was the traitor of the Norwegian government, who was installed as the head of the Nazi puppet government when Germany invaded?
The German blitzkrieg was so swift and furious that the British and French troops who had assembled in northern France to block the Nazi advance were soon pushed to the coast at the little port of ______________ on the English Channel.
At Dunkirk, the British __________________ held off the Germans just long enough for hundreds of British vessels of all kinds, both military and civilian, to ferry more than 300,000 British and French soldiers across the channel to safety in England.
Royal Air Force (RAF)
Who was the old World War I hero, who was a new conciliating French government when the Germans took over, and immediately asked Hitler for an armistice?
Under the terms of surrender, all France, except for a small zone in southern France with a capital at _____________, came under direct German control.
Several patriotic Frenchmen escaped from France to Great Britain, where they organized the ___________________ under the leadership of General Charles de Gaulle.
Free French government
Several patriotic Frenchmen escaped France to Great Britain, where they organized the Free French government under the leadership of:
General Charles de Gaulle
What was Hitler's plan to invade and conquer Great Britain where Germany's mighty air force would destroy the Royal Air Force, and demoralize the British people with constant air raids?
According to Operation Sea-Lion, the ________________, which was Germany's mighty air force, and would destroy the RAF, which it outnumbered 5-to-1, and demoralize the British people with constant air raids.
On the day Germany invaded France and the Low Countries, Neverville Chamberlain resigned, and the stalwart _________________ became prime minister of Great Britain.
In July 1940, Hitler hurled his bombers against England, beginning the:
Battle of Britain
With the aid of a new invention called _____________ the RAF turned the tables against the Luftwaffe in the Battle of Britain and destroyed over 1,700 German planes, forcing Hitler to postpone Operation Sea-Lion.
What did the Germans use to attack Britain's commerce, which were warships designed to meet the size limitations imposed on Germany's navy by the Treaty of Versailles?
Germany's celebrated _______________, under the brilliant command of Field Marshal Erwin Rommel, reconquered all of the territory lost by the Italians to the British and began to menace Egypt anew.
Germany's celebrated Afrika Korps, under the brilliant command of Field Marshal ___________________, the "Desert Fox," reconquered all of the territory lost by the Italians to the British and began to menace Egypt anew.
What was the brilliant Field Marshal Erwin Marshal called?
After gaining support of the Finns, as well as of the Romanians, Hungarians, and Bulgarians, who wanted to regain territory lost in World War I, Hitler massed nearly 150 divisions along the Soviet border and struck on what exact date?
June 22, 1941
What was the act that continued the terms of the earlier legislation and adopted the important "cash and carry" principle for dealing with warring nations?
Neutrality Act of 1937
In March 1941, Congress passed the _______________, which granted the President sweeping powers to sell, lease, lend, or otherwise dispose of war materials to any nation whose defense he felt to be vital to American security, and also declared that any means of defense, including warships, which belonged to a friendly belligerent could be refitted or repaired in the United States.
In December, 1937, Japanese airmen bombed and sank the American gunboat ______________ on the Yangtze River, making it clear that Japan would not permit the United States to stand in its way of Asian conquest and domination.
Where did Japan attack on December 7, 1941, which was the home base for America's Pacific fleet; and Japan attacked because they believed they needed to strike the Americans with a knockout blow at the very beginning, because they knew they could not win a long war with America?
What was the exact date for the bombing of Pearl Harbor?
December 7, 1941
What setback for the Allies occurred in the summer of 1942 when a British-Columbia force attempted a full-scale raid at the French port of ______________, but was brutally repulsed by the Germans.
Who was the general of the British Eighth Army who launched a heavy counteroffensive against the Afrika Korps at El Alamein in the fall of 1942?
General Bernard Montgomery
In the fall of 1942, the British Eighth Army, under General Bernard Montgomery, launched a heavy counteroffensive against the Afrika Korps at ________________, inflicting 59,000 casualties on the Germans and forcing them back.
In November 1942, the Allies launched _________________, an invasion of Vichy French Northwest Africa. And under the command of American generals Dwight D. Eisenhower and George S. Patton, this invasion began when Anglo-American forces landed at Casablanca, Oran, and Algiers.
Who were the two American generals in command of Operation Torch, an invasion of Vichy French Northwest Africa, and began when Anglo-American forces landed at Casablanca, Oran, and Algiers?
Dwight D. Eisenhower
George S. Patton
What were the Japanese-American soldiers called which means second generation because the men were all sons of Japanese immigrants and were born and educated in the United States?
The Nazi offensive in Russia was stopped in October at the city of __________________, where the Russians surrounded the German Sixth Army and pinned them in the devastated city for nearly two months, and was the Nazi's last great offensive in the East.
What day was it called on June 6, 1944, when thousands of American, British, Canadian, and Free French troops hit the beaches of Normandy in northwestern France, launching the largest amphibious (seaborne) assault in history?
What was the exact date for D-Day?
June 6, 1944
On June 6, 1944 (D-Day), thousands of American, British, Canadian, and Free French troops hit the beaches of _______________ in northwestern France, launching the largest amphibious (seaborne) assault in history.
In December 1944, Hitler launched a counterattack through the dense ________________ in Luxembourg and Belgium, hoping to advance across the Meuse River and recapture the busy port of Antwerp.
By January 1945, the German was again forced to retreat from Belgium; the ________________ was the Nazi's last great offensive in the West.
Battle of the Bulge
The Germans surrendered unconditionally on May 7, and the next day, May 8, 1945, was declared:
V-E Day (Victory in Europe Day)
What two outposts between Hawaii and the Philippines did the Japanese move at once to seize after the attack on Pearl Harbor?
Who was the American general who had been sent to the Philippines in 1936 to prepare the islands' defenses against future Japanese attack?
General Douglas MacArthur
In 1941, to preserve the civilian population from further bloodshed, General Douglas MacArthur proclaimed Manila an open city and withdrew the remainder of his forces to the:
The 11,000 American men on _______________, the fortified island which guarded the entrance to Manila Bay, fought on alone against overwhelming odds for about a month before they, too, were captured.
The American prisoners from Bataan and Corregidor were forced by their Japanese captors to walk 70 miles to prison camps. This march became known as the ________________ because the Japanese shot or bayoneted those prisoners who fell out of the line of March due to hunger, wounds, illness, or fatigue.
Bataan Death March
What nation in the Orient surrendered to the Japanese on Christmas Day, 1941?
What "impregnable" fortress in Malaya fell to the Japanese in February 1942?
What was the last land route into China that the Japanese and Thai troops cut in January 1942?
What battle, in February 1942, were most of the American and Dutch vessels sunk, and the Japanese were able to complete their conquest on land by March?
Battle of the Java Sea
Who was the American colonel who led 16 American B-25 bombers from the aircraft carrier Hornet in a bombing raid over Tokyo and other Japanese cities?
Colonel "Jimmy" Doolittle
What was the four-day battle that was the first naval battle in history in which the opposing vessels did not sight one another, and the Japanese lost two aircraft carriers, a cruiser, and so many aircraft that they had to abandon their trust?
Battle of the Coral Sea
What was the crucial battle in June 1942, where the U. S. Navy broke the back of the Japanese fleet?
Battle of Midway
What three territories in Alaska did the Japanese occupy, that was the only territory in North America invaded by the Axis Powers?
What was the adopted strategy that the Allies adopted whereby only the most important islands would be assaulted in order to establish air and naval bases for the drive to Japan?
Who was the American admiral who fought to take the Solomons while General MacArthur was heavily engaged in dislodging the Japanese from New Guinea?
Admiral William Halsey
Who was the commander-in-chief of the U.S. Pacific Fleet, who concentrated his forces in the Central Pacific to crack the Japanese empire while General MacArthur was engaged in dislodging the Japanese from New Guinea and Admiral William Halsey fought to take the Solomons?
Admiral Chester Nimitz
The first step in the Allies' island-hopping campaign was the capture of ______________ in the Gilbert Islands so that the Americans would have an air base from which they could bomb Japanese positions in the Marshall and Caroline Islands.
The major showdown with the Japanese came in June and July 1944, with the assault upon the keystone of the Japanese defenses, called _____________, in the Mariana Islands.
What battle also happened at the same time as the assault on Saipan, which was a desperate attempt to stop the invasion of Saipan, where the Japanese lost 4 aircraft carriers and 400 planes?
Battle of the Philippine Sea
What was one of the greatest naval battles in history, where the Japanese lost almost all of their remaining ships and planes?
Battle of Leyte Gulf
What were the Japanese suicide planes loaded with explosives?
Who became president of the United States in 1945 after Roosevelt died, and met with Joseph Stalin and British Prime Minister Clement Atlee in Germany, and, along with Chinese Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, issued the Potsdam Declaration?
Harry S. Truman
In the summer of 1945, Truman, Joseph Stalin, and British Prime Minister ______________ met in Potsdam, Germany and on July 26, 1945, along with Chinese Generalissimo Chiang Kai-Shek by radio, issued the Potsdam Declaration.
On July26, 1945, President Truman and Prime Minister Atlee, joined by radio with Chinese Generalissimo Chiang Kai-Shek, issued the ___________________, calling upon the Japanese to surrender unconditionally and to withdraw to the home islands.
President Truman decided to use the _______________ against Japan in order to save the lives of thousands of American servicemen and countless Japanese who would have been slaughtered in an invasion of Japan.
The United States possessed the atomic bomb as a result of the __________________, the largest research and scientific effort of its day.
Who was the German-born Jewish physicist who, in 1939, wrote a letter to President Roosevelt warning him that the Germans might produce an atomic weapon and that the United States should begin research in this area?
Who were the three scientists who helped in the development of the atomic bomb in America?
J. Robert Oppenheimer
What were the two locations in Japan that the U.S. dropped an atomic bomb on each?
On September 2, 1945, which was designated ______________, the Japanese surrendered aboard the American battleship USS Missouri.
What was the exact date for V-J Day, when the Japanese surrendered?
September 2, 1945
The Jews were rounded up by the ___________, an elite corps of extremely fanatical Nazis, or the Gestapo, and were either executed on the spot or shipped by railroad to war factories or to concentration camps.
The Jews were rounded up by the SS or the ________________, the Nazi secret police, and were either executed on the spot or shipped by railroad to war factories or to concentration camps.
What were some of the largest concentration camps?
Who were the several prominent leaders in the German bureaucracy who have gone down in history along with Hitler as human monsters?
How many Jews were systematically murdered by the Nazis between 1934 and 1945?
6 million Jews
What was the horrible slaughter of 6 million Jews remembered today as?
From 1945 to 1949, many of the Nazi leaders were put on trial in ______________, Germany.
In 1941, although the United States was not yet at war against the Axis Powers, America and Great Britain jointly issued the ______________, a declaration of the common war aims of the two Western democracies, and was a utopian document that urged the nations of the world to abandon the use of force and to work together for world peace through an international organization.
Between November 28 and December 1, 1943, the "Big Three" (Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin) met together for the first time at ______________, the capital of Persia (now Iran). And the most important discussion at this meeting centered on the fate of liberated countries and the need for postwar international peace-keeping organization.
Between February 4 and 12, 1945, President Roosevelt appeared at his last conference with Prime Minister Churchill and Premier Stalin at ______________, where the FDR made several concessions to Stalin, including giving him a large chunk of Poland and allowed him to encourage a pro-Communist government in Poland itself, and it was also decided that the United Nations should be established.
Between February 4 and 12, 1945, at Yalta, it was decided that a permanent world peace organization, the ______________, should be established to replace the failed League of Nations .